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The Corinthians send a garrison to Epidamnus. After fruitless negotiations, the Corcyraeans besiege the place with forty ships.

ἔπεμπον: the impf. of this verb used as aor., since the activity of the sender is regarded as going along with the person sent. So ἀποστέλλειν (ii.85.10; iii.49.5). Cf. κελεύειν, 11, δεῖσθαι, 14. See on c. 10. 34.

οἰκήτορα: = ἔποικον, ii.27.5.

φρουρούς: formally construed with ἰέναι κελεύοντες, but in sense rather dependent on ἔπεμπον.

Ἀπολλωνίαν : a Corinthian colony, south of Epidamnus, also in the country of the Taulantii.

δέει...ὑπ̓ αὐτῶν : a proleptic const., the pass. form of which makes ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν necessary. In the act. it would be μὴ σφᾶς κωλύωσι.

τούς τε οἰκήτορας καὶ φρουροὺς...τήν τε ἀποικίαν : by τε . . . τε the two members are united on the same level (see on c. 8. 14), while τοὺς οἰκήτορας καὶ φρουρούς are joined together as one whole, as in 15, and, with stronger discrimination of the two parts, in c. 28. 4, τοὺς φρουρούς τε καὶ οἰκήτορας.

ἥκοντας...δεδομένην : these pf. partics. indicate that all was finished when they learned it. Cf. ii.3.2.

καὶ ὕστερον ἑτέρῳ στόλῳ: inserted here in anticipation of 18, where the fleet of 25 ships, which was despatched immediately, is augmented by 15.

κατ᾽ ἐπήρειαν: ἐπηρεασμός is defined by Arist. Rhet. ii.2.4, ἐμποδισμὸς ταῖς βουλήσεσιντοῦ πλησίονοὐχ ἵνα τι αὑτῷγένηταιἀλλ᾽ ἵνα μὴ ἐκείνῳ. It implies, therefore, wanton malice. The Corcyraeans had no interest in the restoration of the nobles.

τάφους: i.e. τοὺς πατρῴους (iii.59.13), of their common ancestors, who had founded Epidamnus.

προϊσχόμενοι: this verb or προέχεσθαι (c. 140. 24), like προβάλλεσθαι (c. 37. 16; 73. 13; ii.87.14; iii.63.9), and προφέρεσθαι (iii.59.11), means ‘to bring forward as a reason,’ ‘to appeal to.’

κατάγειν: regularly used of the restoration of exiles. Cf. 18; c. 111. 3; ii.33.4; 95. 9; v.16.31; viii.53.4.

οἱ δὲ Ἐπιδάμνιοι...οἱ Κερκυραῖοι κτἑ.: instead of this parataxis of clauses, we should have looked for ἐπεὶ . . . ὑπήκουσαν, στρατεύουσιν. The decisive matters are thus placed in strong contrast. Though the subj. is changed, after the neg. ἀλλά is used. Cf. c. 58. 6; ii.70.2; iii.45.16. Otherwise καί is employed. Cf. c. 48. 3; 61. 2; 105. 29. The aor. ὑπήκουσαν stands in the sense of our plpf. in a protasis. Cf. c. 62. 6; 63. 11; ii.2.12; iv.3.9, etc. Before στρατεύουσιν, as St. rightly remarks, we must understand οὐ πείσαντες, for οὐδὲν ὑπήκουσαν = οὐκ ἐπείσθησαν. See App. In τεσσαράκοντα ναυσί the reinforcement spoken of in 11 is silently assumed. For the acc. οὐδέν, cf. c. 139. 9; v.114.2: αὐτῶν is neut. and part., since with ὑπακούειν Thuc. uses a pers. gen. always without acc. Cf. ii.62.22; iii.50.14; iv.56.16; v.84.11; vi.71.15; 82. 8; 87. 5; viii.5.19 (abs., i.143.33; with dat., iv.63.12; v.98.3). We have here αὐτῶν with aor. (not as in c. 29. 1, τούτων with impf.) in reference to the demand made by the first squadron, 10, which had not been regarded. See Herbst, Philol. 16, p. 274.

προσκαθεζόμενοι: with acc. Cf. c. 61. 8; v.61.16, where, however, the acc. may be governed by πολιορκεῖν. But cf. c. 24. 2 and Kühn. 409, 8.

προεῖπον κτἑ.: announced publicly. See on c. 29. 3. Note the change of subj. with the following infs. (as in Hdt. ii.115.29), and that the former represents the imv., the latter the indic., of dir. disc.

ἰσθμός: a remark inserted to show the ease of the operation.—ἐπολιόρκουν: obsidere coeperunt.

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