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παλαιότατοι: in 1. 4. 1, 13. 13, we have the shorter form παλαίτατος; see St., Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 56.—λέγονται: of mythical or poetical tradition, as 2. 102. 27, 34; 3. 96. 2; 4. 24. 18.— 4. οἰκῆσαι: settled. Cf. ᾠκήσαμεν 2. 64. 20.

ἀρκείτω κτἑ.: as authentic information is not to be had, one must be content either with the account of the poets (here esp. Homer, as also 1. 10. 4, 11. 19, 21. 3), or with one's own judgment about these peoples (ὡς ἕκαστος γιγνώσκει, cf. 2. 48. 10).

ποιηταῖς: dat. of agent with pass. See on 1. 125. 6; 3. 64. 15; and Steup, Thuk. Stud. II, 55 f.; C. F. Smith, Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc. XXV, 71.—περὶ αὐτῶν: Cl. renders “about these matters,” referring to 1. 1. 10; but the following μετ᾽ αὐτούς points to a personal sense.

Σικανοί: see Holm I, 58 ff., 350 ff., and Busolt, Gr. Gesch.^{2} I, 378 f.—φαίνονται: presumably of written testimony rather than, as λέγονται, of mythical or poetical tradition. Cf. 1. 9. 22, 13. 9. Still more definitely the following ὡς ἀλήθεια εὑρίσκεται (this word of historical inquiry; see on 1. 1. 11) points to a credible source.—ἐνοικισάμενοι: which Dion. H. 1. 22 seems also to have used of the same occurrence; to be preferred to ἐνοικησάμενοι of most Mss., whose authority in such cases is questionable. Only from οἰκίζειν, not from οἰκεῖν, are found mid. aor. forms in compounds: ἀνοικίσασθαι 1. 58. 13, κατοικίσασθαι 2. 102. 31. See App.

καὶ πρότεροι: even before, sc. τῶν Κυκλώπων καὶ Λαιστρυγόνων.

Ἴβηρες ὄντες : before these words Kr. missed, and Stein has inserted, ὕστεροι, which is clearly what Thuc. meant; but ὕστεροι would only repeat what is already contained in μετ᾽ αὐτοὺς πρῶτοι. As to the credibility of Thuc.'s view of the origin of the Sicanians, see esp. Holm I, 58 f., 356 f., and Freeman, Hist. of Sicily I, 474 ff. —τοῦ Σικανοῦ ποταμοῦ τοῦ ἐν Ἰβηρίᾳ: the river generally called later Sucro (now Xucar) seems to be meant, not the tributary of the Iberus, Sicoris (now Segre), nor the Seine (Σηκοάνας, Sequana). See K. Müllenhoff, Deutsche Altertumskunde I, 164 f.— 11. Τρινακρία: Hom. Θρινακίη, of uncertain derivation. See Holm I, 329.— 12. τὰ πρὸς ἑσπέραν: adv. Cf. τὸ πρὸς βορέαν, 99. 1. For the matter, cf. l. 27 πρὸς τὰ μεσημβρινὰ καὶ ἑσπέρια and see Holm I, 59 ff. and 357 ff.

τὴν Σικελίαν: see Weidner, Parerga Dinarch. et Thuc. p. 20 (in Gießener Gymn. Progr. 1875), who considers this, as well as πρὸς τὴν Σικελίαν (14), interpolated.

ἁλισκομένου: with force of pf., as in 1. 23. 8. GMT. 27.

πρὸς τὴν Σικελίαν: cf. similar consts. 5. 2. 11, 65. 12; 7. 80. 19.

ὅμοροι τοῖς Σικανοῖς οἰκήσαντες: on account of the statement below (16) προσξυνῴκησαν κτἑ., Steup thinks some words have fallen out here, perhaps καὶ αὐτῶν τισι ξυνοικήσαντες. He holds that with the traditional text ξύμπαντες can mean only the whole of the Trojans who came to Sicily. Better St., who says that more probably the Trojans and Sicani united are meant.—Ἔλυμοι: for their origin, see Holm I, 86 ff. and 374 f.; Freeman I, 195 ff. and 542 ff.; Busolt^{2} I, 375 ff.

ἐκλήθησαν: (aor.) received the name. Cf. 4. 29; 1. 3. 20.—Ἔγεστα: the form used everywhere by Thuc.; also the people Ἐγεσταῖοι, as in Hdt. 5. 46. 5, 47. 8; 7. 158. 8. In later writers the form Αἴγεστα also occurs. Inscriptions of the oldest coins of the city have Σεγ- (or Σαγ-), the form later adopted by the Romans. See Holm I, 90, 375; III, 598f.—προσξυνῴκησαν: the compound only here.

Φωκέων τινές: Pausanias (5. 25. 6) also mentions Hellenes τοῦ Φωκικοῦ γένους in Sicily. Holm (I, 87) and others have suggested that the Hellenic immigrants here mentioned were really Phocaeans, and that the mention of Phocians is due to the Phocaeans calling themselves descendants of the Phocians (Paus. 7. 3. 10; cf. Hdt. 1. 146). Scholars have even tried to find in the inscriptions of the coins of Egesta the dialect of Phocaea (but cf. Holm III, 599 f.). The immigration of Phocians seems to have been introduced here in a chapter treating otherwise exclusively of barbarian immigrations (cf. the concluding words, l. 39) and not where Hellenic settlements are mentioned, because the Phocians were not able to Hellenize the barbarians with whom they coalesced as second or third component. The fact that the mention of the Phocians occurs after the name of the whole people and the two chief places indicates that this is a side remark. To the otherwise improbable conjecture of W. Ridgeway (Class. Rev. H, 180 (1888)), Φρυγῶν for Φωκέων, is opposed the fact that from the whole context it is clear that only Hellenes returning from Troy are in mind.— τότε: of a time assumed as known, as 1. 101. 8. For the matter, cf. 4. 120. § 1.

κατενεχθέντες: cf. 1. 137. 8; 3. 69. 5; 4. 120. 5.

Σικελοί: see Holm I, 62 ff. and 360 ff.; Busolt^{2} I, 380 ff.; Freeman I, 124 ff. and 472 ff.—ἐξ Ἰταλίας: the term is used by Thuc. only of the peninsula south of the river Laus and Metapontum. Cf. 1. 12. 14; 7. 33. 21.

φεύγοντες Ὄπικας: cf. Dion. H. 1. 22 βιασθέντες ὑπὸ οἰνώτρων καὶ Ὀπικῶν. The reading of Vat. and other good Mss. Ὄπικας is hardly due to a slip of copyists, even though acc. to all later writers the form should be Ὀπικούς.

ὡς εἰκὸς καὶ λέγεται : referring to δ<*>´βησαν ἐπὶ σχεδιῶν. This for mula ὡς λέγεται always stands within or after the words it qualifies. Cf. 1. 24. 10, 118. 21; 3. 79. 10; 7. 86. 17; 8. 50. 16.

τηρήσαντες: after waiting for.τὸν πορθμόν: i.e. the favorable time for the passage. Cf. Soph. Trach. 571.—κατιόντος τοῦ ἀνέμου: i.e. when the wind blew seaward (different from 2. 25. 19). Cf. Dion. H. 1. 22 κατασκευασάμενοι σχεδίας ἐπὶ τῷ πορθμῷ καὶ φυλάξαντες κατιόντα τὸν ῥοῦν.

τάχα ἂν δέ : sc. διέβησαν. Order as in 10. 13. For pot. indic. with ἄν expressing past possibility, see GMT. 244; KühnerGerth 392, 4.—εἰσὶ δὲ...ἐπωνομάσθη : two circumstances supplementarily mentioned in confirmation of the Italic origin of the Sicels.

ἀπὸ Ἰταλοῦ, βασιλέως τινὸς Σικελῶν: cf. Dion. H. 1. 35 Ἰταλία ὠνομάσθη ἐπ᾽ ἀνδρὸς δυνάστου ὄνομα Ἰταλοῦ, who acc. to Antiochus had made himself master of Southern Italy.

οὕτως: emphasizes summarily the reason just given in ἀπὸ Ἰταλοῦ . . . ἔχοντος. See on 1. 22. 7.

ἐπωνομάσθη: cf. 1. 13. 21; 2. 29. 15.

στρατὸς πολύς: appos. in explanation of the general subject. Cf. 2. 47. 5; 4. 58. 4.

ἀνέστειλαν: forced back, Bk.'s emendation (for ἀπέστειλαν of the Mss.), now generally adopted (cf. 70. 14; 3. 98. 3), except by Steup, who compares ἀποστέλλειν 3. 89. 20.

πρὸς τὰ μεσημβρινὰ καὶ ἑσπέρια αὐτῆς : only the west of Sicily is mentioned above (12) as still occupied by the Sicanians.— 28. ἐποίησαν: caused, with acc. and inf., as 2. 5. 6.

ἐπεί: after, like ἐπειδή. Cf. 2. 73. 10 ἀφ̓ οὖ ξύμμαχοι ἐγενόμεθα.

ἔτη ἐγγὺς τριακόσια : belongs to the complexive aor. ᾤκησαν. For ἐγγύς and ἐγγύτατα (cf. 4. 19; 5. 8. 10), see App. on 2-5.

πρὶν Ἕλληνας ἐς Σικελίαν ἐλθεῖν: i.e., acc. to 3. 2, before the founding of Naxos, which occurred a year before that of Syracuse.

βορέαν: for the Mss. reading βορρᾶν, see App. on 2-5.

Φοίνικες: their settlements in Sicily, as on all coasts of the Mediterranean (see Curtius, Peloponnesos II, 10), are well characterized here περὶ πᾶσαν . . . νησίδια. Of these ἄκραι Pachynos (from pachun, lookout) and Lilybaeum (opposite Libya) kept their Phoenician names throughout all antiquity. For detailed investigations concerning individual settlements, see Movers, Die Phönizier II, 309-362. Cf. Holm I, 79 ff. and 370 ff.; III, 747 f. The correctness of the statement that the Phoenicians came to Sicily before the Hellenes is doubted by Beloch, Rh. Mus. XLIX, 117 ff.—περὶ πᾶσαν μὲν τὴν Σικελίαν: in consideration of the antithesis below (34) ἐπειδὴ δὲ . . . ἐπεσέπλεον, Steup suggests the loss of some temporal modifier, like πρίν, πάλαι, ποτέ, or ἐπὶ πολύ, after πᾶσαν μέν.

ἀπολαβόντες : i.e. from the rest of Sicily. Cf. 1. 7. 4; 4. 45. 7; 7. 60. 9.

ἔνεκα: for the Mss. ἕνεκεν, see App. on 2-5.

ἐπεσέπλεον: sailed in afterwards, i.e. after the Phoenicians. Cf. ἐπικατάγεται 3. 49. 18. As κατὰ θάλασσαν adds nothing to the force of the verb, Steup suspects that a ptc. like μετανιστάμενοι has dropped out after πολλοί. St., who explains ἐπι- as insuper, ad veteres incolas, thinks the addition of κατὰ θάλασσαν was due to contrast with the crossing of the strait by the Sicels, described in § 4.—Μοτύην καὶ Σολόεντα καὶ Πάνορμον: Motye (prob. spinnery) on the little island S. Pantaleo near the promontory of Lilybaeum. Soloeis (Phoen. name Kafara, village) east of Palermo, now Solanto; for us a “little Pompeii” on account of the important remains from the time of the Roman Empire unearthed there. See Holm III, 250 ff. Σολόεντα uncontracted, like Μαλόεις 3. 3. 13, 25. Panormus, now Palermo (Phoen. name unknown). The city names include also the territory belonging thereto.

ξυνοικήσαντες: i.e. after they had restricted themselves to narrower bounds (no longer περὶ πᾶσαν τὴν Σικελίαν). The compound, used in 63. 14; 2. 68. 15 of the joining of new settlers with older, designates here the union of scattered communities. ξυνοικίσαντες, the reading of some good Mss., is inadmissible, since here it is not a matter of the new settlement of the three places (see on 5. 3).

ἐνέμοντο: for the idiom νέμεσθαι πόλιν, cf. 1. 84. 4; 2. 30. 4; 4. 52. 11, 56. 13.—πίσυνοι: poetical word, found in Attic prose only in Thuc. (2. 89. 21; 5. 14. 19), though freq. in Hdt. It is common in the poets. See C. F. Smith, Traces of Epic Usage in Thuc. (Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc. XXXI, 80).

ἐλάχιστον πλοῦν ἀπέχει: cf. 49. 20, 97. 4.— 39. βάρβαροι τοσοίδε: partial resumption of τοσάδε ἔθνη τὰ ξύμπαντα above (1). Cf. 6. 2; 7. 57. 63, 58. 25, where also τοσός δε looks backward. For like use of τάδε, cf. 1. 41. 1, 43. 9, and τοιάδε 7. 78. 1.

καὶ οὕτως ᾤκησαν : and thus they fixed their settlements in Sicily.

-5. Hellenic settlements in Sicily. —The summary here given from 3-5 of the Hellenic colonies in Sicily, in the order of the date of settlement, follows Holm (I, 118 ff., 381 ff., 390 f., 393); see per contra Busolt, Rh. Mus. XL, 466 ff.

Naxos (3. § 1) Ol. 11, 2; 735 B.C.

Syracuse (3. § 2) Ol. 11, 3; 734 B.C.

Zancle-Messene (4. §§ 5, 6) Ol. 12, 3; 730 B.C.

Leontini and Catana (3. § 3) Ol. 12, 4; 729 B.C.

Megara (4. § 1) Ol. 13, 1; 728 B.C.

Gela (4. § 3) Ol. 22, 4; 689 B.C.

Acrae (5. § 2) Ol. 29, 1; 664 B.C.

Himera (5. § 1) Ol. 33, 1; 648 B.C.

Casmenae (5. § 2) Ol. 34, 1; 644 B.C.

Selinus (4. § 2) Ol. 38, 1; 628 B.C.

Camarina (5. § 3) Ol. 45, 2; 599 B.C.

Aeragas (4. § 4) Ol. 49, 4; 581 B.C.

πρῶτοι: after the part. gen. to be preferred to the adv. πρῶτον of most good Mss. See App. on 3. 101. 6. —Χαλκιδῆς: on the relation of Euboean Chalcis to Hellenic colonization, see Curtius, Gr. Gesch.^{6} I, 417 ff., 425 ff.

Θουκλέους: from Athens, acc. to Ephorus (apud Strab. 6. 2. 2).—Νάξον: at the best point for first landing from Greece, near Tauromenium (Taormina).—Ἀρχηγέτου: epithet of Apollo (esp. the Delphian Apollo), as protector of new settlements, occurring also in Pindar (P. 5. 66). His statue in Sicilian Naxos is mentioned by Appian (Bell. Civ. 5. 109).

ὅστις: referring to a concrete noun only here in Thuc. See App. on 2-5.—νῦν ἔξω τῆς πόλεως: which had, then, earlier a wider compass. The destruction of the city in 403 B.C. (see Holm II, 105) was evidently not yet known to Thuc.

θεωροί: delegates to festivals or to oracles. Cf. 5. 16. 24.

Συράκουσαι: form adopted by most editors. The Mss. vary, Vat. having generally Συρακοῦσαι, and Συρακούσσιοι for the people. See Buttmann, Ausf. Sprachl. § 21, N. 9.—ἐχομένου: = ἐπιγιγνομένου, in Thuc. only here; elsewhere local (2. 96. 22; 5. 67. 15; 8. 90. 31), or in the sense of keeping (1. 22. 7).—Ἀρχίας τῶν Ἡρακλειδῶν ἐκ Κορίνθου: cf. 1. 24. 4 Φαλίος, Κορίνθιος γένος, τῶν ἀφ᾽ Ἡρακλέους. Both, designated by Thuc. merely as Heraclidae, prob. belonged to the ruling clan of Bacchiads. Plutarch, Narrat. Amat. 2, relating the occasion for the founding of Syracuse, says it was ordered by the oracle in atonement for crime. The mythical character of the story is evident in that acc. to it Ortygia and Syracusa were daughters of Archias.

ἐκ τῆς νήσου: named Ortygia, and later connected with the mainland, first by a mole (οὐκέτι περικλυζομένῃ, with Bk. for περικλυζομένη), later by a bridge. See Strabo 1. 3. 18.

καὶ ἔξω...ἐγένετο : also the outer city, being joined on by a wall, became populous. There is no need, with Kr. and Bm., to make the whole city subj. of ἐγένετο, and καὶ ἔξω προστειχισθεῖσα a sort of part. appos.— ἔξω: the special name for the mainland part of Syracuse was Achradina or “place of the wild pear-tree” (from ἀχράς). See Holm I, 126. Modern Syracuse is again limited to the island.—προστειχισθεῖσα: elsewhere only in late writers; cf. Dion. H. 3. 1 προσετείχισε τῇ πόλει τὸν καλούμενον Καίλιον λόφον.

μετὰ Συρακούσας οἰκισθείσας: = μετὰ Συρακουσῶν οἴκισιν 4. 16, or μετὰ Συρακουσῶν κτίσιν 5. 10. For const. of the ptc., see GMT. 829 b. The year of settlement of the chief city of Sicily Thuc. could assume to be known. See App. on 2-5.—Λεοντίνους: Leontines, though like Ἁλιῆς, Δελφοί, Οἰνιάδαι, the name designates the place as well as the people. But in Thuc. only once (4. 4) do we have certainly the name of place (cf. πόλις Λεοντίνων 5. 4. 12), whereas in numerous other passages Λεοντῖνοι is unquestionably an ethnic term (6. 12, 15; 50. 8; 63. 15; 77. 6; 79. 7; 3. 86. 4, 9, 11, 12; 4. 25. 34, 42, 49; 5. 4. 3, 21). Hence it is better to regard it as ethnic here, esp. in view of μετ᾽ αὐτούς. Cf. Μεγαρέας ᾤκισαν 4. 7; Ἴωνας Ἀθηναῖοι ᾤκισαν 1. 12. 13. The city lay in a fruitful region south of Aetna, some three or four miles from the sea. See Polyb. 7. 6 and Holm I, 130.

Κατάνην: on its favored site, which, in spite of the constant danger from the neighboring Mt. Aetna, makes it to the present day the only great city on that coast, see Holm I, 130 f. On the various explanations of the name, see Holm I, 389. —οἰκιστὴν δὲ αὐτοὶ...Εὔαρχον : i.e. from themselves they chose the oecist (with a name of good omen, Εὔαρχος), thus avoiding subordination to Naxos.

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