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Episode on the end of the Tyranny of the Peisistratidae (54-59)

The bold deed of Aristogeiton and Harmodius was committed under the Tyranny of Hippias, eldest son of Peisistratus, and occasioned by an amour of Hipparchus, a younger son. Character of the rule of the Peisistratidae until the murder of Hipparchus.— 1. τὸ γὰρ Ἀριστογείτονος καὶ Ἁρμοδίου τόλμημα: a digression introduced by γάρ, as 1. 89. 1. The episode is due to the mention made 53. § 3 that recollection of the issue of the Tyranny of the Peisistratidae had been the cause of the feeling then prevailing among the Athenian Demos. Acc. to the words ἣν ἐγὼ ἐπὶ πλέον διηγησάμενος κτἑ. (2 ff.), Thuc.'s motive, in our view, was to oppose prevalent popular errors with regard to the sons of Peisistratus and the deed of Harmodius and Aristogeiton. He had already done this more briefly in 1. 20. § 2, where he gives an example of the widespread ignorance among the Hellenes concerning important events of their own history. As to the relation of the two episodes, see on 1^{4}. 20. 5. The conjecture of MüllerStrübing, Aristophanes 543 ff., that Thuc.'s special interest in the fates of the house of the Peisistratidae was due to kinship is prob. correct (see Einleit.^{4} p. xiii, N. 6). But M.-S. is doubtless wrong (Thuk. Forsch. 53 ff.) in finding in Thuc.'s˙ double treatment of the Peisistratid question a proof of the separate publication of the history of the Ten Years' War. (See Einleit.^{4} p. xxxvii). As indicated at 1^{4}. 20. 5, nothing is in the way of believing that we should have had only one treatment of the matter if Thuc.'s work had received a final revision. Wrong, too, is the view of G. Friedrich (N. Jhbb. CLV, p. 177) that at 1. 20 the Athenian Demos is “represented as in entire ignorance of the state of affairs,” while in 6. 53 it has a suspicion of what was really going on. From 1. 20. § 2 it cannot be rightly inferred that Thuc. there ascribed to the Demos the belief that the deed of Harmodius and Aristogeiton had restored freedom to Athens. The accountin Aristotle's Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία of the issue of the Tyranny of the Peisistratidae (c. 17 ff.) differs in many points from Thuc., but apparently offers nothing more correct.

ξυντυχίαν: affair, matter. Cf. 1. 33. 1; 3. 112. 26.—ἣν...διηγησάμενος ἀποφανῶ : by a full discussion of which I will prove. L. Herbst (Philol. XL, 306 ff.), assuming ἐπὶ πλέον always expresses or implies a definite comparison, connects ἐπὶ πλέον ἀποφανῶ and argues a more definite reference to 1. 20. § 2. But even in Thuc. are found comparatives not essentially differing in force from positives. See on 6. 6; 1. 122. 8; and further διὰ πλείονος 1. 124. 12; βιαιότερον 2. 33. 14; μακρότερα 3. 52. 22; τοὺς λόγους μακροτέρους μηκύνειν 4. 17. 5; ἐπὶ πλέον 2. 53. 1. Besides, if Thuc. had really meant to refer here to something said earlier, he must have expressed himself more clearly; to say nothing of the improbability that he would have left in a final revision 1. 20. § 2 and 6. 54 ff. as we have them.— 3. οὔτε τοὺς ἄλλους: to emphasize the second member: neither the other Hellenes, nor even the Athenians themselves, corresponding to the positive οἵ τε ἄλλοι κτἑ.

ἀκριβὲς οὐδὲν λέγοντας : of historical questions, as ἀκριβές τι εἰδέναι 5. 26. 24. See on 55. 1.

Πεισιστράτου γὰρ κτἑ.: for γάρ, see on 33. 7. γηραιοῦ τελευτήσαντος: prob. 528-527 B. C.

ὥσπερ οἱ πολλοὶ οἴονται: so also Pseudo-Plato, Hipparch. 228 B.

ἔσχε τὴν ἀρχήν: acquired the sovereignty, = ἦρξε 55. 1.

ὥρᾳ ἡλικίας λαμπροῦ : Schol. ἐν τῇ ἀκμῇ ἐπιφανεστάτου, i.e. in the flower of youth and beauty.—ἀνὴρ τῶν ἀστῶν: cf. ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος τῶν πάλαι 1. 126. 6. ἀστός referring to his home, πολίτης to his political station.

μέσος πολίτης: Schol. οὔτε ἐπιφανὴς οὔτε ἄδοξος. Cf. μέσου ἀνδρὸς Μήδου Hdt. 1. 107. 13.—εἶχεν αὐτόν: same term that is used of the marital relation. Cf. 2. 29. 2 οὖ εἶχε τὴν ἀδελφὴν Σιτάλκης.

πειραθείς: Schol. ἐρωτικὴν πεῖραν δεξάμενος.

καταγορεύει : informs, as 4. 68. 24.—περιαλγήσας: greatly pained, περι- intensive, see on 4. 14. 10.— 13. ἐπιβουλεύει...κατάλυσιν τῇ τυραννίδι : for similar turns of expression, see on 3. 109. 21.—ὡς ἀπὸ τῆς ὑπαρχούσης ἀξιώσεως: quantum pro sua auctoritate poterat; restrictive, an open attack was out of the question for a μέσος πολίτης.

καὶ ἐν τούτῳ Ἵππαρχος κτἑ.: see App.

ἐν τρόπῳ δέ τινι ἀφανεῖ: so recent editors, with Levesque, for τόπῳ of the Mss. It prob. does not mean that the act was done secretly, but that the manner of the insult did not betray the real motive. Cf. the same idiom in Dio C. 43. 13. The Schol. also read τρόπῳ: ἐμηχανᾶτο κρύφα προπηλακίσαι τὸν Ἁρμόδιον ὡς δἰ ἄλλην αἰτίαν τινά.

δή : scilicet. See on 10. 21.—προπηλακιῶν: for fut. ptc. after παρασκευάζομαι, see on 2. 18. 4.

τὴν ἄλλην ἀρχήν: see App. on 14.

ἀνεπιφθόνως κατεστήσατο: had established it so as not to give offense (aor. in subord. clause); Schol. ἀνεπιφθόνως, οὐ μεμπτῶς.

καὶ ἐπετήδευσαν κτἑ.: this aor., as also διεκόσμησαν (21), complexive (see on 2. 29; 1. 7. 6) with comprehensive subj. οὗτοι (i.e. the Peisistratidae). The pred. τύραννοι is put before the subst., acc. to the usage explained at 1. 1. 8 (cf. 31. 6); only here the plural—representing the Peisistratidae—and the preceding sup. (ἐπὶ πλεῖστον δή) give a somewhat different turn to the sentence: as tyrants (= of all tyrants) these for the longest time (at last even they too fell into other ways) laid stress upon noble sentiment and mental culture. On ἀρετή see Introd. to 1^{4}. li, and on ξύνεσις (usually clear insight), see xlviii. ἀρετὴ καὶ ξύνεσις are emphasized also in 4. 81. 11 by Brasidas as comprehending the highest moral and intellectual qualities.

εἰκοστὴν μόνον: acc. to Arist. Ath. Pol. 16 Peisistratus levied a δεκάτη. But cf. Busolt, Griech. Gesch.^{2} II, 328 N. 1.

τῶν γιγνομένων: i.e. all the fruits of the earth.— διεκόσμησαν: the best-known of these ornaments was the Enneakrunos (2. 15. § 5).

τοὺς πολέμους διέφερον: impf. of persistent prosecution. Cf. 1. 11. 12; 8. 75. 13.—ἐς τὰ ἱερὰ ἔθυον: short for ἐς . . . τὰς θυσίας ἔφερον. Cf. ἐθεώρουν ἐς τὰ Ἴσθμια 8. 10. 2; θύειν εἰς ταύτην τὴν πανήγυριν (Lys.) 6. 5.

αὐτὴ πόλις: the state or citizens apart from the tyrants.

ἐπεμέλοντο: with inf. also Xen. Mem. 4. 7. 1. Only the pres. stem of this verb seems to have been used by Thuc. See St., Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 66.—ἐν ταῖς ἀρχαῖς: i.e. the offices of state, esp. the archonship.

Ἀθηναίοις: dat. with ἦρξαν (of the ἐνιαυσία or κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτὸν ἀρχή), as 1. 93. 11; 2. 2. 6.

τοῦ τυραννεύσαντος: who had been tyrant. Cf. 55. 11.

ὅς: wrongly suspected by Bk., for the younger Peisistratus is mentioned on account of his archonship, not for the altars dedicated by him, which are referred to only incidentally in a rel. clause. The year of his archonship is not definitely known.— τῶν δώδεκα θεῶν βωμόν: like the miliarium aureum in Rome, starting-point for the roads leading out of Athens and with the distances inscribed on it (cf. Hdt. 2. 7. 5; C. I. G. H, 1078); serving also as a place of refuge. See Curtius, Zur Gesch. des Wegebaues bei den Gr. (Abhandl. d. Berl. Akad., 1854, p. 247 f.; also collected works I, 59 f.); Wachsmuth, die Stadt Athen H, 434 ff.; Milchhöfer in Curtius, Stadtgesch. von Athen, p. ix.

ἐν Πυθίου: sc. ἱερῷ or τεμένει (cf. 34). So ἐν Διονύσου 8. 94. 1. See 2. 15. 23 (where the sanctuary is called τὸ Πύθιον) and Milchhöfer in Curtius, Stadtgesch. p. xiv.

[τοῦ βωμοῦ]: due, as Kr. saw, to some stupid reader seeking a modifier for μεῖζον.

δῆλόν ἐστιν : sc. τὸ ἐπίγραμμα.

ἀμυδροῖς γράμμασι : the stone with this inscription was found in the spring of 1877, on the banks of the Hissus near the fountain Callirrhoe (C. I. G. IV, 373 e). It is in two pieces and some lettersare gone entirely (-τρατος Ἱππίου), others are much abraded. Otherwise the inscription is distinct, so that ἀμυδροῖς cannot refer to the tracing of the letters. Steup thinks the meaning is here, as in (Dem.) 59. 76, that the red color of the letters had faded. See H. Heydemann, Hermes XIV, 317. Cl. suggested that the injury to the inscription may go back to the earliest period, and that ἀμυδροῖς possibly referred to this injury. For still another view, see Szanto, Wiener Studien III, 155 ff.

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