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Hippias ruled three years longer, more harshly than before, until he was driven from Athens. He then betook himself to Sigeum and Lampsacus, and from there to King Darius. Later he accompanied the expedition of the Persians to Marathon.

δἰ ἐρωτικὴν λύπην: i.e. on account of pain occasioned by a love affair. The phrase forms, as St. rightly explains against Cl. and some others, together with Ἁρμοδίῳ . . . ἐγένετο the pred. to both following subjects (η τε ἀρχὴ . . . τόλμα ἐκ τοῦ . . . περιδεοῦς). With this view of the sentence we have here a conclusion in accordance with the introductory words (54. 1 τὸ γὰρ Ἀριστογείτονος . . . ἐπεχειρήθη) of the discussion of the undertaking of Harmodius and Aristogeiton. St. points out further that in the account of the τόλμημα of Harmodius and Aristogeiton it is expressly stated (57. § 3) τὸν λυπήσαντα οὖν σφᾶς καὶ δἰ ὅνπερ πάντα ἐκινδύνευον ἐβούλοντο πρότερον, εἰ δύναιντο, προτιμωρήσασθαι. If one keeps these words in mind along with what is said about the concocting of the conspiracy (54. § 3 δὲ ἐρωτικῶς περιαλγήσας . . . ἐπιβουλεύει εὐθὺς . . . κατάλυσιν τῇ τυραννίδι), there can be no doubt that Thuc., in this concluding and summarizing sentence, traces not only the concoction of the plot but the murder of Hipparchus to the pangs of love. ἐρωτικός is here used in a somewhat more general sense than in 54. 11, where in contrast with the anger of Harmodius on account of insult mention is made of the ἐρωτικὴ ὀργή (i.e. rage inflamed by jealousy) of Aristogeiton.

ἀλόγιστος τόλμα: as 3. 82. 24.—ἐκ τοῦ παραχρῆμα περιδεοῦς: to be closely connected with τόλμα though the art. is not repeated (see on 55. 4; 1. 51. 11). The phrase τὸ παραχρῆμα περιδεές occurs also 8. 1. 29. As to Thuc.'s use of neut. ptcs. and adjs. for abstract nouns, see on 1. 36. 3, and C. F. Smith, Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc. XXV, 75 ff.

χαλεπωτέρα...κατέστη : became harsher, comparative as in 7. 28. 21. For pred. adj. in this const., see on 3. 37. 13. On the matter, cf. 53. § 3; Hdt. 5. 55, 62; 6. 123; Arist. Ath. Pol. 19. § 1.

διὰ φόβου...ὤν : see on 34. 8.

διεσκοπεῖτο: rare mid. form, with more intensive meaning, as Plato, Phaed. 70 c. Cf. the simple form σκοπεῖσθαι 8. 48. 23, and see on 86. 6.— ἀσφάλειαν: means of security or protection. Cf. 87. 20; 1. 40. 7; 3. 13. 4.

μεταβολῆς γενομένης: hypothetical, in case of a revolution (Schol. ἐάσαντι τὴν τυραννίδα).

γοῦν: at any rate, introducing an instance (ἔδωκεν) in confirmation of the general διεσκοπεῖτο, i.e. “among other things” he concluded this alliance, although not esp. brilliant for a ruler of Athens (Ἀθηναῖος ὢν Λαμψακηνῷ).

αἰσθανόμενος: with unusual dependent inf. for ptc. Cf. 5. 4. 24.— αὐτούς: i.e. Hippocles and Acantides. —μέγα παρὰ βασιλεῖ δύνασθαι: cf. 2. 29. 3.

ἐπίγραμμα: from Simonides, acc. to Arist. Rhet. 1. 9 (p. 32, 24 Bk.), who cites the third verse. Cf. Bergk, Poct. Lyr. Gr. (Simon. frg. 111).

τῶν ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ: of the men of his own time (with ἀριστεύσαντος).— 13. Ἱππίου: sc. θυγατέρα.

ἀδελφῶν : of these only the Peisistratus mentioned 54. 26 is known. MüllerStrübing, Aristoph. p. 541 f., conjectures that the historian Thueydides was descended, on the father's side, from this Archedice, daughter of Hippias.

ἐν τῷ τετάρτῳ: Ol. 67, 3; 510 B.C. —ὑπὸ Λακεδαιμονίων καὶ Ἀλκμεωνιδῶν τῶν φευγόντων: the former led by Cleomenes; the latter had been in banishment since the secure establishment of the tyranny of Peisistratus (Ol. 60, 1; 540 B.C.). On the matter, see 53. § 3; Hdt. 5. 62 ff.; Arist. 19.

ὑπόσπονδος: under safe conduct, as 88. 50. Cf. Hdt. 5. 65.—ἐς Σίγειον: which the Athenians had conquered under the rule of Peisistratus (Hdt. 5. 94) or earlier.

ὅθεν: i.e. from the court of Darius. See on 21. 11.

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