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The Athenians advance to the attack. The Syracusans, though not expecting this, enter into the battle with spirit. The different motives for the courageous bearing of the combatants.

ἐπῆγε: inchoative impf.— 2. ἀπροσδόκητοι: active, as in 2. 33. 14, 93. 26; 4. 72. 12; 7. 29. 14, 39. 14 (but in all these it is in the dat. of pers. reference); else where with passive force (2. 5. 13, 61. 13, 91. 15; 3. 39. 23; 4. 103. 21; 7. 46. 1; 8. 23. 12).— 3. ὡς ἤδη μαχούμενοι: for on the day before the Athenians had not accepted the battle offered (66. § 3). The const. of a verb of expectation with ὡς and fut. ptc. is unusual; different is 7. 12. 15 προσδοκίαν παρέχειν ὡς ἐπιπλεύσονται.

καί τινες αὐτοῖς...προυδίδοσαν : parenthetical explanation, the regular narrative being resumed with ὅμως δέ (1. 10).

καὶ ἀπεληλύθεσαν: sc. ἐς τὴν πόλιν: had even gone away (to the city). See App.—οἱ δὲ καὶ διὰ σπουδῆς: and these indeed in haste. οἱ δέ = τινες, without change of subj., as in 1. 87. 2.

ὡς δὲ...προσμείξειε, καθίσταντο : but as each everywhere reached the main body, they took their stand, i.e. without regard to the divisions they belonged to. The main body was just advancing against the Athenians (12) and was soon in conflict with these.

ἀλλὰ τῇ μὲν ἀνδρείᾳ...ἀντέχοι : but in bravery they were not inferior (to the Athenians) so far as their experience (in war) extended. ἦσαν is understood from the preceding clause. τῇ ἀνδρείᾳ repeats and strengthens τόλμῃ.

τῷ δὲ ἐλλείποντι αὐτῆς...προυδίδοσαν : but in the lack of it their wish also against their will they abandoned (lit. left in the lurch). τῷ ἐλλείποντι = τῇ ἐλλείψει (see on 1. 36. 3, and Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc. XXV, 75 ff.). τὴν βούλησιν ἄκοντες is a kind of oxymoron.

ὅμως δέ: antithetical to ἀπροσδόκητοι μὲν . . . μαχούμενοι (2), but after the parenthesis virtually repeating in (the concessive clauses) οὐκ ἂν οἰόμενοι . . . ἀμύνασθαι what was said above. See App.

οἱ λιθοβόλοι: throwing stones without slings, = libratores or libritores (Tac.).—σφενδονῆται: cf. 43. 14.

τοξόται: cf. 43. 13, 67. 14. —τροπὰς...ἀλλήλων ἐποίουν : made routs of one another, put each other to flight. Cf. Hdt. 1. 30. 25; Xen. Hell. 7. 2. 20. τροπή with ποιεῖν is verbal noun of the intr. τρέπεσθαι, whereas in τροπὴν ποιεῖσθαι (2. 19. 9; 7. 54. 4) it answers to trans. τρέπειν or τρέπεσθαι.

οἷα εἰκὸς ψιλούς : se. ποιεῖν. Mss. C and G read οἵας by reverse assimilation to τροπάς.

σφάγια προύφερον : Schol. ἔμπροσθεν τῆς στρατιᾶς ἐσφαγιάζοντο.

τὰ νομιζόμενα : the eustom is mentioned also 5. 10. § 2.—ξύνοδον ἐπώτρυνον τοῖς ὁπλίταις: roused the hoplites to conflict; poetic const., lit. stirred up conflict for the hoplites. Cf. Hom. χ 152 νῶιν ἐποτρύνει πόλεμον κακόν, stirs up evil war against us, and Tac. Hist. 2. 24 irritare proelium.

οἱ δ᾽ ἐχώρουν: they set off, the following clauses as far as ἐπιδεῖν (23) being appos.

τῆς ἰδίας: modifying both σωτηρίας and ἐλευθερίας. Cf. 2. 44. 4; 5. 105. 2.—τὸ μὲν αὐτίκα...τὸ δὲ μέλλον : for the moment . . . for the future; adv. as 7. 38. 8. Cf. 4. 107. 2 καὶ τὸ αὐτίκα . . . καὶ τὸ ἔπειτα.

Ἀθηναῖοι : sc. μαχούμενοι, which is more nearly explained by the epexegetical infs. σχεῖν and μὴ βλάψαι, just as ξυγκτήσασθαι and ἐπιδεῖν below.

καὶ τῶν ξυμμάχων οἱ αὐτόνομοι: among the independent allies of the Athenians are to be understood here only such ξύμμαχοι as did not come under the ἀρχή arising from the Delian Alliance, i.e. besides the Argives, esp. the Corcyraeans, Cephallenians, and Zaeynthians. As opp. to these ἀπὸ ξυμμαχίας αὐτόνομοι (7. 57. 12), all subjects of the ἀρχή of the Athenians are comprehended under the term τὸ ὑπήκοον τῶν ξυμμάχων (23), even the Chians and Methymnaeans, who under the ἀρχή enjoyed a certain independence and esp. were not liable to tribute (cf. 85. 7 f.; 7. 57. 17). That Thuc. included the Chians and Methymnaeans among the ὑπήκοοι is clear not only from 7. 57. § 4f., but also from 22. 2, where Nicias otherwise would have had to take into consideration besides the ὑπήκοοι ξύμμαχοι not merely Peloponnesian allies of the Athenians. See Stahl, De Sociorum Atheniensium Iudieiis, Index lect., Münster, 1881, p. 3f.

ξυγκτήσασθαι ἐκείνοις ἐφ᾽ ἦλθον: to help those (the Athenians) acquire what they had come for. For ἐφ᾽ ἦλθον, cf. 9. 17; 7. 15. 1.

τὸ ὑπήκοον: neuter collective; see on 35. 6. These belong also to the ἐναντίοι (19), but owing to the distance from the leading clause (οἱ δ᾽ ἐχώρουν) a new finite verb is expressed (τὸ πρόθυμον εἶχον).

μέγιστον μέν: above all. See on 1. 142. 1.—ἀνελπίστου: closely connected with ἢν μὴ κρατῶσι: above all they were zealous for the safety of their lives, for which there was no hope unless they should conquer.

ἐν παρέργῳ: secondarily, by the way. Cf. ἐκ παρέργου 1. 142. 25; 7. 27. 20.

καὶ εἴ τι...ὑπακούσονται : after τὸ πρόθυμον εἶχον expressing the hope, whether after having helped (the Athenians) in some other conquest they shall receive milder treatment from them. εἰ as in 2. 12. 3. Cf. Xen. Anab. 6. 4. 22 ἐδεήθη προθυμεῖσθαι, εἴ τι κτἑ. See App.

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