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Even the importation of provisions is made difficult for the Athenians; and they are oppressed by all the inconveniences of a siege at home, while they themselves continue to besiege Syracuse. In the extreme financial straits into which they have come, they seek relief by a tax of five per cent. on all wares imported and exported by sea.

1. τε τῶν ἐπιτηδείων παρακομιδὴ κτἑ.: this is the last of the bad results (μεγάλα ἐβλάπτοντο) of the occupation of Decelea that are recounted from c. 27. 21 on. τῶν πάντων ὁμοίως ἐπακτῶν ἐδεῖτο in 4 does not belong in the same rank with the preceding; it contains rather the ground of the last statement, and must therefore be introduced, not by τε, but by the epexegetical δέ, as in i.26.23; 55. 3; v.10.21. But St. claims that even with Cl.'s interpretation τε is more appropriate. The transportation of provisions from Euboea was more difficult and expensive, because they had to be brought around Sunium; nevertheless everything had to be imported, because the whole country was in the hands of the enemy, and out of it neither corn nor cattle could be got; and so (καί) Athens resembled in fact rather a fortress than an open city.

κατὰ γῆν: all the Mss. have κατὰ γῆς, but κατὰ θάλασσαν shows that the acc. is required.

θᾶσσον οὖσα: corresponds to ῥᾷον αὐτῷ ἐφαίνετο ἐσκομιδὴ τῶν ἐπιτηδείων ἔσεσθαι in c. 4. 18. The Mss., even Vat., give θάσσων, but the adv. is the preferable expression.

τῶν δὲ...ἐδεῖτο : = πάντα ὧν ἐδεῖτο ἐπακτὰ ἦν. The Schol. explains ἐπακτῶν by εἰσαγωγίμων ἐξ ἀλλοδαπῆς. See on vi.20.20. It is pred. Kr. Spr. 57, 3, 3.

φρούριον κατέστη: became a fortress, the verb used in the same sense as in i.118.3; ii.65.30; 89. 37.

πρὸς γὰρ τῇ ἐπάλξει: = παρ᾽ ἔπαλξιν (ii.13.42).

ἐφ᾽ ὅπλοις που: so Vat. correctly, instead of the meaningless ποιούμενοι, which perhaps crept into this place from the partic. in c. 27. 18, 26. ὅπλα means the camping places, watch-posts, which were in different parts of the city; hence the indef. που, “here and there.” Cf. i.111.6; iii.1.7; vi.64.20.

12. τὸ γὰρ αὐτοὺς πολιορκουμένους κτἑ.: the three infs. introduced by τό, ἀποστῆναι in 14, ἀντιπολιορκεῖν in 15, and ποιῆσαι in 17 (the aors. of the simple occurrence, the pres. of continued activity) form the subj. of an incomplete period, the intention of which is already fulfilled in the inserted ὅσον clause. On this anacoluthon and the different attempts to remove it, see App.

τῷ αὐτῷ τρόπῳ: sc. ἐπιτειχισμῷ, for as such, i.e. as the building a fort on an enemy's frontier, was also the attack of the Athenians on Syracuse to be regarded.

παράλογον: miscalculation. Thuc. uses this form eight times, παρὰ λόγον five times, and there are four places where it is doubtful which form should be preferred. See on i.65.3.

ὅσον: Cl. explains it as giving the measure after τοσοῦτον (here with finite verbs following; in iii. 49. § 4 with inf. as well as finite verb), and since the measure is to be deduced from the difference between the expectation (ἐνόμιζον) and the present result (ἔτει ἑπτακαιδεκάτῳ ἐς Σικελίαν ἦλθον) he claims that ὥστε cannot be correct, and conjectures ὅμως δέ. But it is better, with Kr., Arn., and St., to take both ὅσον and ὥστε as giving the measure after τοσοῦτον, and interpret ὅσον, quatenus, in so far as. See App.

οἱ δὲ τριῶν γε ἐτῶν, οὐδεὶς πλείω χρόνον: the two parts of the phrase are to be closely connected in reading, so that the gen. τριῶν ἐτῶν will be seen to depend on χρόνον. Possibly οὐδεὶς δέ would make the connexion clearer, unless Kr. and St. are right in removing the comma after ἐτῶν, thus making οὐδείς part. appos. to οἱ δέ (“no one of the rest”).

περιοίσειν: hold oui, a use of the word, which does not occur again till the later writers. It combines the force of περιέσεσθαι and ἀνθέξειν (Suid.).

ἑπτακαιδεκάτῳ: the same form in iv.101.1.—τὴν πρώτην ἐσβολήν: cf. ii. 19.

τετρυχωμένοι: found in Thuc. only in the pres. and pf. pass. partic. Cf. iv.60.13. See on i.126.24.—προσανείλοντο: προσ- with adv. force, insuper.

24. δἰ : for all these reasons, to which καὶ τότε . . . προσπιπτόντων adds still a further cause. The ἄλλα ἀναλώματα were recounted from c. 27. § 4 to c. 28. § 1.

ὑπὸ τῆς Δεκελείας πολλὰ βλαπτούσης: the partic. with the force of the verbal subst., as in c. 42. 10; iii.20.3; 29. 9; iv.29.9.— 26. ἀδύνατοι τοῖς χρήμασι: Schol., ἤγουν ἐνδεεῖς χρημάτων ἐγίγνοντο. The const. is not elsewhere found, but is warranted by kindred expressions, as χρήμασι δυνατοί in i.13.19; δυνάμενος τοῖς χρήμασι, Lys. VI 48.

τὴν εἰκοστήν: with regard to this impost on exports and imports, see Boeckh, P. E. p. 434. It continued perhaps till the end of the Peloponnesian War. See Boeckh, l.c.κατά: Cl. reads κατά from Vat. alone, but the Schol. reads ὑπό, and explains it by κατάὑπό: κατά).

ἀντὶ τοῦ φόρου: cf. i.96.7; ii.13.23; v.18.22.

ἐποίησαν: of the introduction of a tax is not found elsewhere. St. writes, on Badham's conjecture, ἐπέθεσαν; Cl. prefers ἐπέταξαν, comparing i.139.2; 140. 18; ii.7.10.

καὶ πρίν: as in vi.11.5.—καθέστασαν: see on 6.

αἱ δὲ πρόσοδοι ἀπώλλυντο: dependent on ὅσῳ and closely connected with μείζων πόλεμος ἦν, and the revenues kept failing.

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