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The Syracusans, hearing of their approach, determine to risk a second sea-fight in the great harbour before they arrive, and strengthen the prows of their ships in order that they may have the advantage of the Athenians in a battle in the confined space.

2. αὖθις: after the first sea-fight (c. 22, 23).—ταῖς ναυσὶν ἀποπειρᾶσαι: = ναυμαχίας ἀποπειρᾶσαι, c. 17. 14.

καὶ τῇ ἄλλῃ παρασκευῇ τοῦ πεζοῦ: Cl. explains, “and besides (cf. i.2.12; vi.72.17) by arming (and strengthening) the land army, as stated in c. 33. § 1, 2.” But in this case we should have ὅνπερ, referring to πεζοῦ, rather than ἥνπερ. The sense is: to make trial with the ships and with the foot-force too (besides). Cf. c. 37. 3 ff. For this meaning of παρασκευή, cf. vi.31.6. It is dat. of manner, rather than means; πεζοῦ, gen. of description, not objective gen. On ἄλλῃ, see G. 142, 2, N. 3; H. 705.— ἥνπερ...ξυνέλεγον : the impf., since they were constantly expecting fresh troops from the allies. It corresponds to οἱ δ᾽ ἄλλοι ἐβοήθουν, c. 33. 7. But St. and Kr. take this as equiv. in force to the plpf., which is perhaps better. See Kr. Spr. 53, 2, 8.—ἐπ̓ αὐτὸ τοῦτο: see on c. 34. 21.

πρὶν ἐλθεῖν: on πρίν with inf. depending on φθάσαι, see Kühn. 482, note 11.

παρεσκευάσαντο: this and the following aors. used for the more exact plpf.

τό τε ἄλλο ναυτικόν: τὸ ἄλλο contrasted with καὶ τὰς πρώρας, “in every other respect they had fitted out their fleet in such manner, as—.”

ἐνεῖδον: Vat. has εἶδον, but ἐνορᾶν is a common expression with Thuc. for knowledge won by experience. Cf. c. 62. 1; i.95.24; iii.30.14.—πλέον σχήσοντες: = πλέον σχήσειν. Schol. τοῦτ̓ ἔστι πλεονεκτήσοντες.

ξυντεμόντες ἐς ἔλασσον : shortening. See Graser, de veterum re navali, p. 28. Cf. viii.86.30, ἐς εὐτέλειάν τι ξυντέτμηται; Ar. Ran. 1262, εἰς ἓν ξυντεμῶ.

τὰς ἐπωτίδας : see on c. 34. 22.—παχείας: pred.; they put on the prows cat-heads of great thickness or strength, i.e. made them stronger than they had been.

ἀντηρίδας: supports, braces, extending from the under side of the beams through the sides of the ship a length of nine feet both within and without. See Graser, Athens Kriegshäfen, Philol. 1871, p. 35, note; and compare the cut in de vet. re nav. tab. 2, fig. 10.—ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν: sc. τῶν ἐπωτίδων; for the ἀντηρίδες served as supports for these.

ἐπισκευασάμενοι: the Corinthians had in this manner refitted their ships. Cf. c. 34. 22. For ἐπι-, see on c. 14. 6.

πρώραθεν: Cl. explains, from the prow, i.e. attacking front to front with the prow (and the ἔμβολον), employing neither the περίπλους nor the διέκπλους, as before (cf. 22). But it is better to take πρώραθεν with ἐπισκευασάμενοι, as St. and Kr., for the important point here is the strengthening of the prow, not fighting with the prow. This seems clear from τὰ πρώραθεν ἐχούσας, below, which is contrasted with these words.

13. οὐχ ὁμοίως ἀντινεναυπηγημένας: not built in like manner to match them. Cf. c. 62. 11.

ἐκ περίπλου: by a circuit (around the hostile ship), i.e. from the side.

οὐκ ἔλασσον σχήσειν: = πλέον σχήσειν. See on 6.

οὐκ ἐν πολλῷ: as in ii.102.22, = ἐν οὐ πολλῷ (ii.49.10), in a narrow space. Kr. Spr. 67, 10, 4.— 18. πρὸς ἑαυτῶν: to their own advantage. Cf. ii.86.19.—ἀντιπρώροις γὰρ ταῖς ἐμβολαῖς: St. has without doubt correctly restored, acc. to Reiske's conjecture, ἀντιπρώροις for ἀντίπρωροι. Cf. 15; c. 40. 16.

ἀναρρήξειν: as in c. 34. 20.

πρὸς κοῖλα καὶ ἀσθενῆ: sc. τὰ ἔμβολα.

παίοντες : reading of Vat. only; all the rest, παρέχοντες.

21. οὐκ ἔσεσθαι: = ὑπάρξειν, in which sense εἶναι, esp. with neg., is often used. Cf. below, 28, 35; i.2.5; 49. 11.—σφῶν: objective gen. with περίπλουν and διέκπλουν.

ᾧπερ τῆς τέχνης : const. similar to c. 33. 28, ἐν τούτῳ τύχης. See on c. 2. 16. ᾧπερ refers to both the preceding nouns, just (περ) the part of their naval skill on which they depended most.

διεκπλεῖν: epexegetical to τὸ μέν.— 25. ὥστε μὴ περιπλεῖν: epexegetical to τὸ δέ. On ὥστε μή with inf. after κωλύσειν, see Kr. Spr. 67, 12, 4. See App.

25. τῇ πρότερον...δοκούσῃ εἶναι : the same form of expression as in i.32.15. For the position of the partic., see on c. 32. 2 and i.11.19.— 26. τῷ ἀντίπρωρον ξυγκροῦσαι: in explanatory appos. to the preceding clause. See App.

πλεῖστον...σχήσειν : Valla renders, se maxime superiores fore, which is doubtless his translation of πλεῖστον σχήσειν, as superiorem esse is of πλέον ἔχειν. But St. writes πλεῖστον περισχήσειν, since no parallel example of the sup. with ἔχειν can be found.

τὴν ἀνάκρουσιν: backing water, i.e. backing without turning the ship, called πρύμναν κρούεσθαι in c. 40. 2; i.50.21, etc.οὐκ ἔσεσθαι: see on 21.

ἐς τὴν γῆν: i.e. to the coast behind them. Of this only the part where they had their camp, between the mouth of the Anapus and the swamp Lysimelea, was open to them.—ταύτην: St. (Pp.) and Goeller refer it to γῆν, and Arn. ap proves; but Bm. to ἀνάκρουσιν. ἐς ὀλίγον is better connected with the idea of motion, as Kr. says, who compares, below 35, οὐκ οὔσης . . . τῆς ἀνακρούσεως. We might add also ξυμφερομένους . . . αὐτό, 31.

δἰ ὀλίγου καὶ ἐς ὀλίγον : through a short distance (to the coast) and to a small part (of the coast). ἐς ὀλίγον is explained by κατ᾽ αὐτὸ τὸ στρατόπεδον τὸ ἑαυτῶν.

31. ξυμφερομένους ἐς ὀλίγον: driven together into a small space. Cf. c. 81. 11, ξυνῆγον ἐς ταὐτό; ii.84.3, ξυνῆγον ἐς ὀλίγον.

ταράξεσθαι : fut. mid. in pass. sense, as in c. 67. 15.— ὅπερ καὶ ἔβλαπτε...ναυμαχίαις : referring to the following events, “and it was just this which did the Athenians the greatest injury in all the following battles.”

ἐς πάντα τὸν λιμένα: contrasted with ἐς ὸλίγον in 30.

ἐς τὴν εὐρυχωρίαν: = ἐς τὸ πέλαγος, outside of the great harbour.—σφῶν ἐχόντων τὴν ἐπίπλευσιν: “since they had the power of entry (into the great harbour) in their control”; i.e. not only could they themselves enter at any time, but they could even prevent the enemy, esp. the expected fleet of Demosthenes and Eurymedon, from entering.

ἀνάκρουσιν: the art. not repeated, as in v.5.1, ἐν τῇ παρακομιδῇ τῇ ἐς τὴν Σικελίαν καὶ ἀναχωρήσει. Cf. c. 37. 1. The position of τε is explained by the close relation of the words in the phrase τὴν ἐπίπλευσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ πελάγους. In 39 also the particle is thrown out of place by the emphatic position of πολεμίου. On Cl.'s conjecture, ἀναχώρησιν, see App.

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