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We, on the contrary, have more than ever cause to hope for the best; for the measures which they have taken against us will themselves be ruinous to them. Besides, not confidence but despair drives them to battle.

1. τὸ ὑπάρχον πρότερον κτἑ.: τὸ ὑπάρχον is not to be understood, with Kr., of material power, as διπλασία ἑκάστου ἐλπίς proves, but only of moral strength; here, “courage,” “self-confidence.” “The feeling which before animated us, in which we, when we were still inexperienced, dared to risk all, rests now on a firm basis; and since the conviction of superiority has been added, the hope of every one is doubled.”—ἀνεπιστήμονες: as ἐπιστήμη (c. 62. 8; 64. 15), referring esp. to skill in seamanship.

ἀπετολμήσαμεν: found only here. Cf. ἀποπειρᾶσαι, c. 36. 2; ἀποκινδυνεύειν, c. 81. 26.

αὐτῷ: sc. τῷ πρότερον ὑπάρχοντι.

τὸ κρατίστους εἶναι : Cl. explains τό with the inf. as introducing the explanation of τῆς δοκήσεως. Most editt. omit τό. See App.

εἰ...ἐνικήσαμεν : the real case in cond. form, as in i.33.8; 76. 8; 86. 4; iv.85.4; vi.10.20. The repetition of κρατίστους (hence the omission of the comma before εἰ) gives to the explanatory clause something of an axiomatic character.

τὰ πολλά: for the most part, generally. Cf. i.13.3; iv.80.10.

6. τὰ τῆς ἀντιμιμήσεως...ἡμῶν : “everything in our arrangements which they on their side (ἀντι-) seek to imitate.”

οὐκ ἀνάρμοστοι: “not unprepared.” This adj. in pers. const. is not found elsewhere.— 10. παρὰ τὸ καθεστηκός: contrary to the usual manner. Cf. i.98.9.

χερσαῖοι: “living on terra firma,” used esp. of animals, and hence softened by ὡς εἰπεῖν. It is to be connected with ἐπὶ ναῦς ἀναβάντες, and Ἀκαρνᾶνές τε καὶ ἄλλοι is added as furnishing significant examples.

ὅπως...χρή : cf. c. 44. 15; iii.11.18; and see on i.91.4.

καθεζομένους: sitting; for they will not be able to stand on board the ships.

πῶς οὐ...τὰς ναῦς : how will they not imperil their ships?ἐν σφίσιν αὐτοῖς...ταράξονται : see on c. 23. 16.

ἐν τῷ...τρόπῳ : cf. i.130.5, ἐν τῷ καθεστηκότι τρόπῳ.

16. τῷ πλήθει: “by the greater number.”

ἐν ὀλίγῳ: in a narrow space. Cf. c. 70. 22; ii.84.14; 86. 20; iv.55.17; 96. 13.

ἀργότεραι ἐς τὸ δρᾶν: “slower in accomplishing.” Cf. vi.12.10, νεώτερος ἐς τὸ ἄρχειν.

ἐς τὸ βλάπτεσθαι : unusual for the simple inf. after ῥᾷσται. It is caused by the parallelism with the preceding ἐς τὸ δρᾶν. For the usual const., see on c. 14. 5.—ἀφ᾽ ὧν ἡμῖν παρεσκεύασται: by the arrangements which have been made by us; unusual assimilation of the nom. of the rel. clause (ἀπὸ τούτων ). G. 153, N. 2; H. 996 a. Kühn. 555, note 4. For ἀπό, cf. c. 29. 6.

21. ὑπερβαλλόντων: abundare, superare. Cf. vi.23.3. For the coordination of the gen. abs. with the circumstantial nom., both causal, see Kr. Spr. 56, 14, 2; Kühn. 492, 3.

ἀποκινδυνεῦσαι: this is Duker's conjecture for ἀποκινδυνεύσει (dat.) of the Mss. and most editt. In this way the idea ἐς ἀπόνοιαν καθεστήκασι is carried out naturally, and οὕτως ὅπως δύνανται is brought into the necessary connexion with a verb. The Schol. says: οὐ τῇ παρασκευῇ δηλονότι πιστεύοντες, ἀλλὰ διακινδυνεῦσαι σπεύδοντες ἐπὶ τῇ τύχῃ τὸ μέλλον ποιοῦνται, which supports the conjecture. “They are come into the desperate strait of risking a battle in such manner as they can, trusting more to fortune than to their own strength.” For government of ἀποκινδυνεῦσαι, see Kr. Spr. 55, 3, 16.— 26. ὡς...οὐκ ἂν πράξαντες χεῖρον : the aor. (as in vi.20.8, προσδεξαμένας) in the uncertainty of the Mss. is to be preferred to the fut. part. πράξοντες. τῶν παρόντων χεῖρον short for χεῖρον ἐν τῷ παρόντι πράσσουσι. Kr. Spr. 47, 27, 2. Cf. vi.89.19, τῆς ὑπαρχούσης ἀκολασίας . . . μετριώτεροι. For the causal partic. with ἄν representing aor. opt., see GMT. 41, 3; H. 987 a.

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