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The infantry on both sides follow the changing erents of the battle with most painful interest, their bodily movements keeping time with the excitement of their minds. The Athenians, especially, for a long time greet the occurrences before their eyes with loud exclamations of hope or of anxiety; but when victory at last decides for the Syracusans, and the Athenians, fleeing in wild confusion, seek refuge on shore, the land troops are seized with despair like that of the Lacedaemonians when their people, after the destruction of their ships, were hopelessly cut off at Pylus (iv. 14).

1. τε ἐκ τῆς γῆς πεζὸς ἀμφοτέρων κτἑ.: cf. c. 70. 29, οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν καταστρωμάτων. τε introduces significantly a new feature of the whole consideration. At the bottom of the entire description as far as 24 lies the idea, that so long as the real struggle is undecided, so long continues in the minds of the spectators a reflexion of this struggle. To ἰσορρόπου τῆς ναυμαχίας καθεστηκυίας answers πολὺν τὸν ἀγῶνα καὶ ξύστασιν τῆς γνώμης εἶχε. ξύστασις, used in Hdt. vi.117.6 and vii.167.5, of the greatest heat of battle, expresses here excitement of mind (stronger than even ἀγών). It occurs also in same sense in Eur. Hipp. 983, μένος μὲν ξύστασίς τε σῶν φρενῶν δεινή. And Dio C., who in his account of the battle of Mylae (xlix. 9) had this passage in mind, says, ἀντιπάλου ἐπὶ πολὺ τῆς μάχης γενομένης ἰσορρόπῳ καὶ αὐτοὶ συστάσει τῆς γνώμης συνέσχοντο.

πολύν : pred. Kühn. 465, 11 c.

αὐτόθεν: Schol. Συρακόσιος στρατός. This and οἱ ἐπελθόντες (sc. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι καὶ οἱ ξύμμαχοι) are the parts in appos. to τε ἐκ τῆς γῆς πεζός. Cf. iv.6.3. Kr. Spr. 56, 9, 1.—περὶ τοῦ πλείονος ἤδη καλοῦ: “to make greater the glory that was already great.”— 5. μὴ τῶν παρόντων ἔτι χείρω πράξωσι: cf. c. 67. 26.

6. ἀνακειμένων: takes, as pf. pass. to ἀνατίθημι (viii.82.3), ἐς instead of ἐν. Cf. Hdt. i.97.3, Δηϊόκης ἐς ἑωυτὸν πᾶν ἀνακείμενον. The Schol. renders the sense correctly, πάσης τῆς ἐλπίδος αὐτοῖς ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶ οὔσης.

οὐδενὶ ἐοικώς : sc. οἷος οὐδεὶς ἄλλος = μέγιστος.διὰ τὸ <ἀνώμαλον τῆς τάξεως> ἀνώμαλον καὶ τὴν ἔποψιν τῆς ναυμαχίας ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἠναγκάζοντο ἔχειν : so Cl. reads, not claiming certainty for his addition, but seeking only to give, instead of the incomprehensible original, the sense which is gathered from the context: “and because their position on the shore was unlike (in consequence of the widely extended line, c. 69. 23), so necessarily was their view of the conflict (from different points) unlike.” This explanation is hardly satisfactory. See App.

9. δἰ ὀλίγου: at a little distance, as in ii.89.41; iii.43.14.

ἀνεθάρσησαν ἄν: use of ἄν with aor. indic. to express a repeated occurrence, corresponding to εἴ τινες ἴδοιεν in the prot. GMT. 30, 2; H. 835, a; Kühn. 392^{a}, 5. Cf. Plat. Apol. 22 b, ἀναλαμβάνων αὐτῶν τὰ ποιήματα . . . διηρώτων ἂν αὐτούς.

πρὸς ἀνάκλησιν : to calling by name. Cf. ἀνακαλεῖν, c. 69. 10; 70. 49.

οἱ δ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸ ἡσσώμενον βλέψαντες: = εἰ δ᾽ ἄλλοι . . . βλέψειαν. τὸ ἡσσώμεμον, the neut. partic. used subst., has a collective force. Kr. Spr. 43, 4, 17.

ὀλοφυρμῷ μετὰ βοῆς: “loud lamentation.” ἅμα connects ὀλοφυρμῷ μετὰ βοῆς ἐχρῶντο with τὴν γνώμην ἐδουλοῦντο.

τῶν δρωμένων : obj. gen. with ὄψεως. Cf. c. 42. 30, τῶν Ἐπιπολῶν τῆς ἀναβάσεως.

τὴν γνώμην...ἐδουλοῦντο : of extreme hopelessness, which robs the mind of freedom. Cf. ii.61.13, δουλοῖ γὰρ φρόνημα τὸ αἰφνίδιον; iv.34.9, τῇ γνώμῃ δεδουλωμένοι.

τῶν ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ : = τῶν μαχομένων.

ἀντίπαλον : = ἰσόρροπον.

διὰ τὸ ἀκρίτως ξυνεχές : on account of the long continuance in uncertainty, i.e. the long continuance of the uncertainty.

τοῖς σώμασιν...ξυναπονεύοντες : i.e. in the movement of the body the mood of the mind was reflected. Schol. συνεξομοιοῦντες τὰ σώματα τῇ περὶ τῶν γιγνομένων προσδοκίᾳ ἀπένευον τῷ σώματι τῇδε κὰκεῖσε. ἴσα is cognate acc. See on c. 34. 23. The passage is imitated by Sall. Jug. 60: niti corporibus et ea huc et illuc . . . agitare.

ἐν τοῖς χαλεπώτατα διῆγον: were in the most painful state. For ἐν τοῖς, see on c. 19. 19.

20. ἀεὶ γὰρ παῤ ὀλίγον...ἀπώλλυντο : for now they were all but sared, now all but lost. παρά as in c. 2. 23.— 21. τε: and so. The inferential τε as in i.4.5 and often.

ἀγχώμαλα: cognate acc. See on c. 34. 23. The word is found only in Thuc. and late writers. 22. πάντα ὁμοῦ ἀκοῦσαι, ὀλοφυρμὸς...κρατούμενοι : the pers. const. with εἶναιπάντα being subj. of ἦν) instead of the more usual impers. Cf. Aesch. Pers. 419, θάλασσα δ᾽ οὐκέτ̓ ἦν ἰδεῖν ναυαγίων πλήθουσα. See the imitation of this passage in Charit. p. 66, 10, πάντα ἦν ὁμοῦ, δάκρυα, χαρά, θάμβος, ἔλεος.

νικῶντες, κρατούμενοι : i.e. the cries of the excited soldiers, we conquer, we are beaten.ἄλλα ὅσα...φθέγγεσθαι : = πάντα τὰ ἄλλα εἴδη φθεγμάτων, ὅσα μέγα στρατόπεδον φθέγγεσθαι ἀναγκάζοιτο. ἄλλα ends the asyndeton as the Lat. alia. On the asyndeton, see Kr. Spr. 59, 1, 1. On the general rel. cond., see GMT. 62; H. 914, B 2.

25. αὐτοῖς: sc. τοῖς ἐν τῇ γῇ, dependent on παραπλήσια.

πρίν γε δή : until at last. See on c. 39. 5.— ἐπὶ πολύ: long, with ἀντισχούσης, as in c. 22. 15; 79. 24, etc.

ἔτρεψαν: the aor. signifies the moment of the crisis, the impf. κατεδίωκον (29) the results that followed.

λαμπρῶς: = φανερῶς, as in i.49.29, τροπὴ ἐγίγνετο λαμπρῶς καὶ ἐνέκειντο οἱ Κορίνθιοι. It belongs to κατεδίωκον. Cl. would connect it with ἔτρεψαν, which its position forbids.

30. μετέωροι: i.e. while still afloat in the harbour. Cf. i.48.4, etc.

κατενεχθέντες: Schol. πρὸς τὴν γῆν. Cf. c. 53. 3.—ἐξέπεσον ἐς τὸ στρατόπεδον: i.e. rushed from the ships into the camp.

οὐκέτι διαφόρως: no longer with the various emotions described above 8-18, but driven by one impulse (ἀπὸ μιᾶς ὁρμῆς, for the more usual μιᾷ ὁρμῇ), i.e. despair.— 33. δυσανασχετοῦντες: acc. to Poll. iii. 130, first used by Thuc. (and only here); common in later writers. This verb takes the acc. (τὰ γιγνόμενα), just as δυσχεραίνειν, ἀγανακτεῖν. Kr. Spr. 48, 8, 1. Cf. Dion. Hal. p. 596, 22, δυσανασχετοῦντες τὴν παρρησίαν αὐτῆς.

οἱ μὲν...οἱ δέ : part. appos. to πεζός as in 4.

τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ τείχους: the διατείχισμα mentioned in c. 60. 9.

περὶ σφᾶς αὐτούς: the most thought at this moment (ἤδη) only of themselves. περί with the acc. for the more usual gen. Cf. iv.51.5, μηδὲν περὶ σφᾶς νεώτερον βουλεύσειν; viii.11.19, τὰ περὶ τὴν καταφυγὴν ἠγγέλθη.

ὅπῃ σωθήσονται : ὅπῃ with fut. indic. as ὅτῳ τρόπῳ in i.107.19, and freq.

37. οὐδεμιᾶς ἐλάσσων: i.e. μεγίστη. So δή here as with the sup. In formulas like this the gen. is always used, never . Kühn. 543, note 5; Kr. Spr. 47, 27, 3.

καί: after παραπλήσια as in c. 70. 2. After καί (= ὡς) the aor. has the force of the plpf.

διαφθαρεισῶν τῶν νεῶν κτἑ.: cf. iv. 14 ff.

προσαπώλλυντο αὐτοῖς: (impf.) “were as good as lost for them.” For αὐτοῖς a few of the minor Mss. have αὐταῖςταῖς ναυσί); but the repeated reference to the Lacedaemonians is more foreible than the unnecessary allusion to the ships.—οἱ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ διαβεβηκότες: for ἐν after verb of motion, see Kühn. 447, A a; Kr. Spr. 68, 12, 2. Cf. iv.14.7, ταῖς . . . ἐν τῇ γῇ καταπεφευγυίαις; also c. 87. 13. For position of the partic., see on c. 23. 14.

καὶ τότε: so then. See on c. 29. 25.

παρὰ λόγον: not παράλογον, which Thuc. prob. never used as adj. See on i.65.3.

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