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The two following days also pass in vain attempts to force their way through the narrow pass up to the plateau. They are frightened, moreover, by a storm which breaks upon them, and suffer heary losses in their constant fighting with the enemy, who attack them on all sides.

1. πρῴ: on the fourth day of the march.

[ἐλθεῖν]: St. is prob. right, following Valla's translation, vi pervadunt ad tumulum, in considering this an interpolation. It seems clear from the context (esp. 6, 7), that they forced their way to the hill, but were not able to carry it. Nowhere else in Thuc. does βιάζεσθαι take an inf., but always a prep. (ἐς, c. 69. 29; i.63.5; κατά, iv.48.8; διά, c. 83. 19). See Holm, H. p. 399. Cl. defends ἐλθεῖν, rendering “they did their best to reach the fortified hill.” —τὸν ἀποτετειχισμένον: cf. c. 78. 22.

οὐκ ἐπ᾽ ὀλίγων ἀσπίδων: referring to the depth of the line. Cf. iv.93.22, ἐπ᾽ ἀσπίδας πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι; Xen. Hell. ii.4.11, ἐπὶ πεντήκοντα ἀσπίδων; An. iv.8.11. The order οὐκ ἐπ᾽ ὀλίγων as οὐκ ἐν πολλῷ, c. 36. 17.

6. ἐτειχομάχουν: they tried to storm the wall.

διικνοῦντο ῥᾷον: they reached them more easily, i.e. hit them better. Schol. ἐξικνοῦντο βάλλοντες. Found only here in Thuc.

βιάσασθαι: to break through.ἀπεχώρουν: (Vat.) not less used of retreat than ἀναχωρεῖν, esp. with πάλιν. Cf. i.107.11.

9. βρονταί: in Thuc. always in pl. Cf. ii.77.23; vi.70.2.—γενόμεναι: often used of such phenomena of nature, ὕδωρ, βρονταὶ καὶ ἀστραπαί, σεισμός. See on i.54.6.

πρὸς μετόπωρον: toward autumn. Cf. viii.108.9.

καὶ ταῦτα πάντα γίγνεσθαι: i.e. that all this was happening acc. to the divine will.

14. ἀποτειχιοῦντας: with the collective μέρος τι. G. 138, N. 3; Kr. Spr. 58, 4, 1. Cf. iii.2.2.

αὖ ἐκ τοῦ ὄπισθεν: i.e. as they had already done in front.

17. μετὰ τοῦτο: so Vat., more definite than μετὰ ταῦτα.

πρὸς τὸ πεδίον μᾶλλον : more toward the plain. Cf. c. 52. 8; vi.88.20.

τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ: on the fifth day.

εἰ μὲν ἐπίοιεν...ἐπέκειντο : for similar tactics (and const.), cf. ii.79.23; iii.97.16.

εἴ πως...φοβήσειαν : the elliptical cond. expresses purpose. GMT. 53, N. 2. The same const. occurs also in i.58.2; ii.67.5; iii.4.14; iv.11.12.

κατὰ βραχύ: a few at a time. Cf. iv.96.19.

πέντε ἓξ σταδίους: their strength, exhausted in resisting ceaseless pressure from all sides, did not allow them to get further.

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