Olympian Odes

Syracuse1 was founded by a colony of Dorians from Corinth, under the Herakleid Archias, in Ol. 11, 3 (734 B.C.). The first point settled was the island Ortygia ( N. 1.1:ἄμπνευμα σεμνὸν Ἀλφεοῦ, κλεινᾶν Συρακοσσᾶν θάλος Ὀρτυγία” ), with which Achradina, on the mainland, was afterwards united. The city grew until it embraced in its circuit five districts, each worthy to be called a city; but even in the earlier time Pindar's address was no figure of speech, P. 2.1:μεγαλοπόλιες Συράκοσαι” .

The constitution of Syracuse, originally aristocratic, was changed into a tyrannis by Gelon, prince of Gela, who reconciled the factions of the city, Ol. 73, 4 (485 B.C.). After Gelon became lord of Syracuse, he made it his residence, enlarged it, built up Achradina, added Tyche, and what was afterwards called Neapolis. All this was not accomplished without high-handed measures, such as the transplanting of the populations of other cities. Gela lost half its inhabitants. Kamarina was razed to the ground, and the Kamarinaians transferred in a body to Syracuse (see O. 4). Under Gelon's rule Syracuse became the chief city of Sicily, the tyrant of Syracuse one of the most important personages on Grecian soil. Applied to by the Greeks for aid, when the invasion of Xerxes was impending, Gelon offered two hundred triremes, twenty thousand men-at-arms, two thousand cavalry, two thousand archers, two thousand slingers, two thousand light troops, and provisions for the whole Greek army until the close of the war, on condition that he should have the command in chief (Herod. 7, 158). Soon after this offer was declined, Gelon was called on to help his father-in-law, Theron of Akragas, against the Carthaginians, who had espoused the cause of Terillos of Himera (see O. 12), and Anaxilas of Rhegion, son-in-law of Terillos.

The great battle of Himera, popularly put on the same day as the battle of Salamis — really fought somewhat earlier — ended in the signal defeat of the Carthaginians, who lost one hundred and fifty thousand men dead on the field. The Carthaginians sued for peace, which was granted on singularly easy terms; for the Carthaginians were backed by the Persian empire with its vast resources. The battle of Salamis had not yet shown the weakness of the Persian power; and, in fact, the immediate effect of that battle has been exaggerated. Persia lost little of her prestige until the close of the fifth century, and Persian gold was a potent element in Greek history far into the fourth.

The consequence of the victory at Himera was a vast accession of power and influence for Gelon. Anaxilas of Rhegion, and a number of Sicilian cities, recognized his supremacy. But in the midst of his plans and projects Gelon died of dropsy, Ol. 75, 3 (478 B.C.). To his brother, Polyzelos, he left the command of the army, the guardianship of his minor son, and the hand of his widow, daughter of Theron. Hieron, the elder of the surviving brothers, who had been prince of Gela, succeeded to the government. Owing to the machinations of Hieron, Polyzelos was forced to take refuge with Theron of Akragas, who was at once his father-in-law and his son-in-law; and a war between Hieron and Theron was imminent, had not a reconciliation been effected by Simonides, the poet. Polyzelos was allowed to return to Syracuse, but Hieron was thenceforward sole ruler. In 477 the Epizephyrian Lokrians invoked the help of Hieron against Anaxilas of Rhegion; the prince sent his brother-inlaw, Chromios (see N. 1 and 9), to Anaxilas, and the lord of Rhegion held his hand. In 474 the inhabitants of Kyme (Cumae) were hard pressed by the Etruscans. Hieron immediately granted the desired aid, and defeated the Etruscans in a naval engagement off Cumae. A helmet with the inscription Ἱάρων Δεινομένεος καὶ τοὶ Συρακόσιοι τῷ Δὶ Τυράν᾽ ἀπὸ Κύμας was found at Olympia in 1817 (Hicks, No. 15). The year after — Ol. 76, 4 (473 B.C.) — Hieron defeated Thrasydaios, son of Theron, and Akragas and Himera both acknowledged his sway; but he granted them their independence and a democratic constitution.

To his success in war Hieron wished to add the heroic honors paid to the founder of a new city. This new city, Aitna, was founded, Ol. 76, 1 (476 B.C.), in the territory of Katana, the old inhabitants having been removed to Leontini. Ten thousand citizens were imported, half from Syracuse and Gela, the other half Peloponnesian immigrants. The constitution was Doric; and Hieron's son, Deinomenes, and his brother-in-law, Chromios, were put in charge. Hieron often called himself Αἰτναῖος (P. 1); Chromios followed his example (N. 1), and the founding of the city was celebrated by the “Aitnaian women” of Aischylos, and by Pindar's first Pythian.

The court of Hieron was a centre of literature and art. Epicharmos was a frequent guest. Aischylos, Simonides, Bakchylides, Pindar were among the visitors. No Doric prince ever reached such a height of glory. He was brilliantly successful at the great games: Ol. 73 and 77, with the single horse; Ol. 78, with the chariot; Pyth. 26 and 27, with the single horse; Pyth. 29, with the chariot, and again with mules. Successes elsewhere are not unlikely. He devised and performed liberal things. A special treasury was erected at Olympia for the Carthaginian booty, and the noble gift which he vowed to the Olympian Zeus was set up after his death by his son Deinomenes — a bronze four-horse chariot and driver, the work of Onatas, on either side a horse with a boy rider by Kalamis.

As a Doric prince, Hieron has found as little favor with posterity as he did with his Athenian contemporary Themistokles. A tyrant, he helped the moralists to make the uneasiness of crowned heads still more uneasy. He became the type of splendid success and of splendid misery; for he was tortured by bodily suffering, he was surrounded by sycophants and informers, and lived in an atmosphere of treachery and meanness. Those who see in Pindar's Hieronic odes sermons levelled at the unfortunate prince will be inclined to despise the greatest ruler of his day. A more humane judgment will recognize high qualities impaired by the faults that were engendered and exaggerated by the tyrannis.

Hieron died Ol. 78, 2 (467 B.C.), at Aitna, and upon his death received heroic honors.

The first Olympian celebrates the victory gained by Hieron, Ol. 77 (472 B.C.), with his race-horse Pherenikos. He was then at the height of his power and glory. Some put the ode four years earlier, Ol. 76 (476 B.C.).

The theme of the poem is given in v. 7,μηδ᾽ Ὀλυμπίας ἀγῶνα φέρτερον αὐδάσομεν” ; and while every Olympian does honor to Olympia, this is the πρόσωπον τηλαυγές, this is, as Lucian says (Gall. 7), τὸ κάλλιστον τῶν ᾀσμάτων ἁπάντων. It may have been put first, because it was the most beautiful; but it owes, in turn, no little of its celebrity to its position, for which it was commended by its myth as well as by its theme. The chariot-race of Pelops for Hippodameia was the true beginning of Olympian contests, and the Pelopion was the heart of Pisa. The Aiolian rhythms are bright and festal, and glitter as the language glitters. Pindar is consciously treading a lofty measure. “No better element than water,” he says, “no brighter blaze than fire by night, no form of wealth that outdazzles gold, no light of heaven so luminous, so warming, as the sun, which dims the ether into voidness, no contest more noble than the Olympian, the source of highest songs to highest bards, chanting Zeus supreme in the palace of Sicily's chief lord, who plucks the loftiest fruits of emprise, who is decked with the sheen of the fairest flower of poesy. For him the noblest chords must be struck, the sweetest musings of the poet recalled, and the scene brought back when the steed Victor bore his lord to triumph (vv. 1-22). Forth shines his glory in the land which Lydian Pelops made his own, for Pelops, the favorite of the gods, has found his resting-place (v. 93) where Hieron, favorite of the gods, has won his victory. The fame of Hieron shines forth (v. 23) — the fame of the Olympiads looks forth (v. 94) — and the story of Pelops is encircled by a belt of glory.”

In his version of the Pelops legend (vv. 25-96), Pindar contradicts the popular account: hence the elaborate caveat at the outset. To make the myth resplendent as his theme, he must remove the foulness of envious tongues. No cannibal feast was offered to the gods by Tantalos, none shared by them (v. 52). Tantalos's sin — the giving of the sacred nectar and ambrosia to his fellows — brought ceaseless woe on himself; but his son, though sent to earth again, was remembered by Poseidon, to whom he had been what Ganymede was afterwards to Zeus. The darkness of the fate of Tantalos only heightens the brilliancy of the fortunes of Lydian Pelops.

The story told, the tone is sensibly lowered. An Olympian victory is still sunshine for life, and Pindar avers that no prince more deserving of what is noble — none of more powerful sway — shall be set forth by his hymns; but there is the old moral that the present good is the highest, and the old restlessness of hope for a yet sweeter song, and a yet more glorious victory. And then, at the last, the poem rises to the height at which it began. The Muse has her most powerful shaft in keeping for the poet's bow. The king, as king, whatever else others may attain, is at the summit of human fortune. Look no further. Prayer can only seek the keeping of this lofty height for king and bard alike (vv. 97-116).

The poem is an epitome of Pindar's manner — approach by overlapping parallels, the dexterous use of foils, implicit imagery. His moralizing is national. No Greek lets us off from that.

The rhythm is Aiolian (Αἰοληΐδι μολπᾷ, v. 102), the tune the rider-tune (ἱππείῳ νόμῳ, v. 101). On the reconciliation of this statement with v. 18, Δωρίαν φόρμιγγα, see the passage.

Of the four triads, the first is taken up with the introduction, and the preparation of the myth; the second and third contain the myth; the fourth connects the myth with the conclusion.

Strophe 1

ἄριστον μὲν ὕδωρ: Much cited in antiquity, and variously interpreted. χρῆσις ὑπερέχει, says Aristotle, “ὅθεν λέγεται ἄριστον μὲν ὕδωρ(Rhet. 1, 7, 14) . No profound philosophical tenet is involved, as is shown by the parallel passage, O. 3.42:εἰ δ᾽ ἀριστεύει μὲν ὕδωρ, κτεάνων δὲ χρυσὸς αἰδοιέστατον, κτἑ” . The poet emphasizes, after the Greek fashion, water as the source and sustenance of life. The copula ἐστί, εἰσί is rare in P. This first sentence is characteristic of P.'s advance by a series of steps. “Water,” “gold,” “sun” are only for the enhancement of the Olympic games. Much in P. is merely foil.

δέ: The article is still largely deictic in P. Notice the rhythm, which is an important guide. δέ, “but there is another — gold — a blazing fire like it loometh — a night fire far above all proud wealth.”

πῦρ is brought into close relation with νυκτί by its position.

νυκτί: The local-temporal dative. Below ἐν ἁμέρᾳ.

μεγάνορος: P. 10.18: ἀγάνορα πλοῦτον.

γαρύεν: Dor. for γηρύειν. The inf. in -εν is well authenticated in several Pindaric passages.

μηκέτι: More vivid than μή (Herm.). Look for no other light, now that the sun has risen.

θαλπνότερον . . . φαεννόν: P. delights in double epithets, vv. 10, 59; O. 2.60. 90.

ἐν ἁμέρᾳ φαεννόν: suggested by πῦρ νυκτί.

ἐρήμας: Not otiose. There are no rivals; μόνος ἅλιος ἐν οὐρανῷ, Simonid. fr. 77 (Bgk.). Αἰθήρ is Homerically fem. here and O. 13.88:αἰθέρος ψυχρᾶς ἀπὸ κόλπων ἐρήμων.

δι᾽ αἰθέρος: Note P.'s peculiarly plastic use of the prepositions.

αὐδάσομεν: There is no good reason for denying to P. the so-called short subj., as here and O. 7.3. The imper. fut. with μή, which so many commentators accept here, has little warrant anywhere. In So. Ai. 572, still cited in some books, θήσουσι depends on ὅπως. See note on O. 6.24. I. 7 (8), 8,δαμωσόμεθα” was understood by the Schol. as subj., and δέξεται in a generic sense — Fr. X. 4: οἷσι . . . δέξεται — is in all likelihood a subj.

ἀμφιβάλλεται: Variously rendered. P.'s usage (see O. 2.98; 9, 5; 13, 93 al.) indicates a shower of poetic βέλη or κῆλα whirring about the minds of the bards. So the μαντεῖα in So. O.R. 481 ἀεὶ ζῶντα περιποτᾶται. Cf. Eur. H. F. 422:ἀμφιβαλεῖν βέλεσιν.

σοφῶν = ἀοιδῶν. They are called “ἐπέων τέκτονες,P. 3.113 .

κελαδεῖν: Favorite word with P., who has ennobled it. “Sound forth,” “praise.” The inf. in its old final sense.

Κρόνου παῖδα: There is always a certain stateliness in genealogy. The adjective is still statelier than the genitive. Cf. O. 2.13: ἀλλ᾽ Κρόνιε παῖ Ῥέας. There is good reason for the specially common mention of Kronos in the Olympians. See v. 111.

ἐς ἀφνεὰν . . . μάκαιραν: See v. 6. Compare P. 5.11: τεὰν μάκαιραν ἑστίαν, and I. 3 (4), 35: ἐρήμωσεν μάκαιραν ἑστίαν.

ἱκομένους: Concord with the involved subject of κελαδεῖν. The v. 1. ἱκομένοις is not to be considered. Cf. I. 5 (6), 21: τέθμιόν μοι φαμὶ σαφέστατον τάνδ᾽ ἐπιστείχοντα νᾶσον ῥαινέμεν εὐλογίαις.

Antistrophe 1

θεμιστεῖον . . . σκᾶπτον: Lit., “staff of doom,” “judicial sceptre.”

ὅς: For position, compare O. 2.9.

πολυμάλῳ = πολυκάρπῳ: The Schol. Germ. cite Il. 9. 542, in which μῆλον is “fruit.” Strabo, 6, 273, puts οἱ καρποί in the first line for Sicily. Others πολυμήλῳ, “rich in flocks.” Demeter is μαλοφόρος, Paus. 1, 44, 3.

δρέπων: Where we might expect δρεπόμενος, P. 1.49; 4, 130; 6, 48. The δρέπανον is a woodman's bill, Lycurg. 86.

κορυφάς: O. 2.14: ἀέθλων κορυφάν, 7, 4: πάγχρυσον κορυφὰν κτεάνων.

ἀγλατζεται δέ: The change to the finite construction brings out the nearer image in bolder relief. Special reason is discernible also in P. 3.53. When there is no μέν the change is easier, I. 3 (4), 12.

ἐν ἀώτῳ: P. uses ἐν with plastic vividness. Compare N. 3.32: ἐν ἀρεταῖς γέγηθε, as in Latin sometimes gaudere in.

οἷα: Not to be roughly explained as = ὅτι

τοιαῦτα. It is the exclamatory relative from which the causal sense can be picked out. “Such are the plays we play.” Compare P. 1.73; 2, 75; 3, 18.

Δωρίαν . . . φόρμιγγα : Δ. does not refer to the metres, as is shown by v. 103, Αἰογηίδι μολπᾷ. Hieron is a Doric prince; the φόρμιγξ may well be a Doric instrument. O. 3.5: Δωρίῳ πεδίλῳ does refer to the measure; but πέδιλον is not φόρμιψξ, and at the worst the Aiolic melody may be considered as a subdivision of the Doric. See Aristot. Pol. 4, 3, where it is said that some recognize only two ἁρμονίαι, the Dorian and the Phrygian.

λάμβανε: Here the aor. might be expected, but the pres. shows that the action is watched. The poet addresses himself, his φίλον ἦτορ.

εἴ τι . . . ἔθηκε: This the regular form of condition in adjurations. Cf. I. 5 (6), 42.

Φερενίκου: Name of Hieron's horse, “Victor.” In the form Βερεϝίκη (Macedonian), the name is familiar. The Φ. of P. 3 was doubtless grandsire to this Φ.

τε καί: This combination is common in P.; the occurrence varies much in various authors. In P. it serves to unite complements, both opposites and similars. Here Πίσας, the scene, and Φ., Victor, make up the sum of the song.

χάρις: Usu. rendered “beauty,” “charm.” Why should it not be “song,” the grace of poetry, as below? Pindar had pledged himself to sing the victory; and, when the steed sped to the goal, the promised song made him feel the stir of sweetest cares.

γλυκυτάταις . . . φροντίσιν: φροντίδες is used of the poet's musings. “Brought me under the empire of sweet musings.”

ταρ᾽ Ἀλφεῷ: παρά in prose, with genitive or dative, is shrivelled into an exclusively personal preposition, like Fr. chez. It is freer and more original in Pindar, although “in the domain of Alpheios” would err only in suggesting too much.

δέμας: The living body, originally distinct from σῶμα. Used plastically as the Lat. corpus = se.

προσέμιξε: The concrete, personal μιγνύναι is common in Pindar, and must have its rights of contact. Here “brought to victory's embrace.” “Wedded,” “clasped,” “embraced,” “encircled,” will answer for many cases. With this passage compare P. 9.77: καί νυν ἐν Πυθῶνί νιν ἀγαθέᾳ Καρνειάδα υἱὸς εὐθαλεῖ συνέμιξε τύχᾳ.

Epode 1

ἱπποχάρμαν: From χάρμα or χάρμη? See P. 2.2.

κλέος: Echoed, v. 93.

Αυδοῦ: The gold of v. 1 glitters in the rich adjective.

Πέλοπος ἀποικίᾳ: Emphasizes the scene for the third time, and prepares the transition.

τοῦ: The story often begins with a relative.

ἐπεί: “Since” (causal).

καθαροῦ λέβητος: κ. possibly to present a contrast to the μιαρὸς λέβης of the familiar story (Ov. Met. 6, 407), which P. is at the pains of denying below. The ablatival genitive is used below v. 58. Later Greek meets poetry here.

Κλωθώ: Klotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, the three fates, are λόχιαι θεαί, acc. to Euripides, I. T. 206.

ἐλέφαντι φαίδιμον ὦμον κεκαδμένον: . depends on κεκ. φαίδιμον is explained by ἐλέφαντι.

θαυματά: So the best MSS. On the omission of ἐστί, see v. 1.

καί πού τι καί: So Thuk. 2, 87:καί πού τι καὶ ἀπειρία πρῶτον ναυμαχοῦντας ἔσφηλεν.

φάτις: The interpolated MSS. have φρένας, Christ suggests φρόνιν. φάτις cannot be acc. pl., and would not do us much good, if it were. We must connect closely, after the Pindaric fashion, φάτις ὑπὲρ τὸν ἀλαθῆ λόγον, as one element, put δεδαιδαλμένοι . . . μῦθοι in apposition with it, and make ἐξαπατῶντι absolute, “mislead” = “are misleading.” So κλέπτει, absol. N. 7.23; cf. P. 2.17. Notice the contrast between φάτις, the poetical story, and λόγος, the prosaic truth; μῦθος has departed from its Homeric sense.

ποικίλοις: The etymology points to embroidery ( ποικιλείμων νὺξ ἀποκρύψει φάος) and embroidery to falsehood, as we have learned from Fr. broder, whereas ἁπλοῦς μῦθος τῆς ἀληθείας ἔφυ.

Strophe 2

Χάρις: The charm of poetry. Compare O. 14.5, where there are three Χάριτες: σὺν γὰρ ὔμμιν τά τε τερπνὰ καὶ τὰ γλυκἔ ἄνεται πάντα βροτοῖς.

τεύχει: The rule, present.

ἐμήσατο: The manifestation, aor.

ἁμέραι δ᾽ ἐπίλοιποι . . . σοφώτατοι: O. 10 (11), 59: τ᾽ ἐξελέγχων μόνος ἀλάθειαν ἐτήτυμον Χρόνος.

ἔστι: . in this position is never otiose. Often=ὄντως ἔστι. “In truth it is.”

ἀνδρί: Not differentiated from ἀνθρώπῳ. So often in poetry.

ἀμφί: A favorite preposition in P., esp. with dat., little used in prose. In the sense of this passage περί is more commonly employed even in P.: ἀμφί, being the narrower, is the more picturesque.

υἱὲ Ταντάλου, σὲ δέ: The effect of δέ after the vocative is to give pause. It is not uncommon in Pindar, and is used where γάρ would seem more natural, δέ=δή. Cf. O. 6.12; 8, 15; P. 10.10 al.

σὲ . . . φθέγξομαι: The position shows that σέ is not felt as the object of ἁρπάσαι (v. 41) until ἁρπάσαι is reached, when the impression is renewed. “Touching thee I will utter what wars with earlier bards.”

ὁπότε: Where the simple ὅτε might have been used. O. 9.104; P. 8.41 al. The tendency of the compounds is to crowd out the simple forms.

ἐκάλεσε: Sc. θεούς.

τὸν εὐνομώτατον ἐς ἔρανον: P. likes to put the preposition between attribute and substantive or substantive and attribute. The article is added, as here, P. 2.3: τᾶν λιπαρᾶν ἀπὸ Θηβᾶν. τόν is deictic, and εὐνομώτατον gives an anticipatory refutation of the γαστριμαργία.

ἔρανον: This word is selected to show the familiar footing of Tantalos. Nor is ὡίλαν Σίπυλον idle. The adjective there also is intended to enhance the intimacy of the ἀμοιβαῖα δεῖπνα.

παρέχων: P. nowhere uses the middle of this familiar verb.

Ἀγλαοτρίαιναν: An original feminine, “Bright - trident,” then a surname, like “Bright-eyes” (Jh. Schmidt). The Greek cares little about possible ambiguity of accusatives before and after an infinitive.

Antistrophe 2

ἱμέρῳ: P. uses ἵμερος and πόθος both so little that we can only say that his usage is not inconsistent with the traditional distinction. Of passionate desire ἵμερος is used, O. 3.33: τῶν νιν γλυκὺς ἵμερος ἔσχεν . . . φυτεῦσαι. For ποθέω compare O. 6.16: ποθέω στρατιᾶς ὀφθαλμὸν ἐμᾶς.

χρυσέαισιν ἀν᾽ ἵπποις : ., here of the chariot. ἀνά is another Pindaric preposition that is very little used in prose, even with the acc.

μεταβᾶσαι: Depends on ἱμέρῳ, as, in the passage cited above, φυτεῦσαι.

δευτέρῳ χρόνῳ: So without ἐν, O. 2.41: ἄλλῳ χρόνῳ, P. 4.55: χρόνῳ ὑστέρῳ.

Ζηνί depends on ἦλθε; in its moral sense not simply to, but for. Ganymede, according to Böckh, was considered by P. to be the son of Laomedon, Pelops was a contemporary of Laomedon, and so the chronology is saved, if it is worth saving.

τωὔτ᾽ ἐπὶ χρέος: “For the same service.”

ματρί: More tender than πρὸς ματέρα.

πολλὰ μαιόμενοι: “Despite many a search.”

φῶτες: φώς (poet.) is colorless, or=“wight.”

πυρὶ ζέοισαν: To be closely connected. The Schol. renders ὕδατος ἀκμάν by ὕδωρ ἀκμαίως ζέον. The position of the words shows impatience and horror.

μαχαίρᾳ makes the butchery more vivid.

κατὰ μέλη ῀μελεϊστί rather than τάμον κάτα μέλη, with μέλη in apposition to σε.

τραπέζαισί τ᾽ ἀμφί: . is an adverb in P. 4.81, and P. 8.85. The τράπεζαι were arranged in two rows facing each other, each guest having a τράπεζα. “They divided among themselves the flesh to the tables on both sides.”

δεύτατα: “The last morsels,” implying a cannibalic delicacy.

διεδάσαντο: The finite verbs throughout force attention to the horrid details.

Epode 2

ἄπορα: O. 10 (11), 44: ἄπορον. The plur. exaggerates, P. 1.34.

γαστρίμαργον: “Cannibal” approaches the effect.

ἀφίσταμαι: Asyndeton is especially in place where repugnance is to be expressed. See Dissen, Exc. II.

ἀκέρδεια λέλογχεν: Gnomic perfect. For the sentiment compare P. 2.55. λαγχάνω has more commonly a person for a subject.

κακαγόρος: Dor. for κακηγόρους.

ἦν: See v. 35.

ἀλλὰ γάρ : γάρ gives the reason for the ἀλλά, as who should say, ἄλλως δ᾽ ἦν, “but all in vain; for.”

καταπέψαι . . . κόρῳ: The same homely sphere of imagery as concoquere, “stomach.” Nor is “brook” far off. So Il. 1. 81: εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ.

ἕλεν: P. 2.30: ἐξαίρετον ἕλε μόχθον.

ἃν . . . λίθον: Apposition “which in the form of a stone.”

ϝοι πατήρ: We could dispense with ϝοι or αὐτῷ. Yet ϝοι πατήρ gives the punisher, αὐτῷ λίθον the punishment, and the apposition makes it easier, ἅν going with ϝοι and λίθον with αὐτῷ. Compare I. 7 (8), 9: τὸν ὑπὲρ κεφαλᾶς ἅτε Ταντάλου λίθον παρά τις ἔτρεψεν ἄμμι θεός.

κεφαλᾶς βαλεῖν: Ablatival genitive, which is better than to make μενοινῶν “expecting,” and κεφαλᾶς the mark, with βαλεῖν=τεύξεσθαι.

εὐφροσύνας ἀλᾶται: ἀλᾶται with genitive as Eur. Tro. 640.

Strophe 3

ἀπάλαμον=πρὸς ὃν οὐκ ἔστι παλαμήσασθαι. Schol.

μετὰ τριῶν: Supposed to refer to the three great sinners, Tityos, Sisyphos, and Ixion. Tityos is mentioned in Od. 11. 576, Tantalos in v. 582, and Sisyphos, v. 593, and Ixion may have dropped out of the list. In any case, we are to understand with τριῶν, not ἀνδρῶν, but πόνων, which, on the hypothesis mentioned, would refer to the punishments of Tityos, Sisyphos, and Ixion. If we analyze the woes of Tantalos, the stone, the hunger, and the thirst, we shall have three. What is the fourth? Is it the βίος ἐμπεδόμοχθος, the thought that nectar and ambrosia had made him immortal (ἄφθιτον), or the remembrance of the nectareous and ambrosial life of the immortals, the “sorrow's crown of sorrow,” or the reflection that his son had been banished from heaven for his fault (τοὔνεκα προῆκαν)? As Tantalos is mentioned only for Pelops' sake, the last view gains probability.

νέκταρ ἀμβροσίαν τε : τε here, like -que, makes νέκταρ and ἀμβροσίαν a whole. τε, connecting single words, is chiefly poetic or late.

ἔθεσαν: It is better to admit a tribrach than to accept the MS. θέσσαν, or Mommsen's θέν νιν, although we miss an object. Hartung would read ἀφθίτους θῆκεν, referring to the ἅλικες συμπόται, but the point is the favor shown by the gods to Tantalos. οἷς νιν is tempting.

τι with ἔρδων.

λαθέμεν=λήθειν. Inferior MSS. have λασέμεν, making ἔλπεται refer to the future as ἔλπομαι does v. 109; but ἔλπομαι in the sense of “think,” “suppose” — compare spero — may take the present as it does repeatedly in Homer. Il. 9. 40; 13, 309. Mommsen reads λελαθέμεν.

προῆκαν : πρα., “straight(forward).”

υἱὸν . . . ϝοι: The dat. shows how he felt it.

ἀνέρων: v. 36.

πρὸς εὐάνθεμον . . . φυάν: Even in the three temporal passages, here, P. 9.27, and N. 9.44, πρός shows its “fronting” sense.

νιν . . . γένειον: σχῆμα καθ᾽ ὅλον καὶ μέρος, not different from “they bound him hand and foot.”

μέλαν: “To blackness.” Proleptic use, esp. common in tragic poets. So. Antig. 881; O. C. 1200; Eur. H. F. 641:βλεφάρων σκοτεινὸν φάος ἐπικαλύψαν.

ἑτοῖμον ἀνεφρόντισεν γάμον: . here is almost equivalent to “tempting.” ἀνεφρόντισεν, “woke to the desire of.” Love is a φροντίς. Notice that this triad is welded together, and moves very fast, with stress on γάμον (v. 69, 80).

Antistrophe 3

Πισάτα . . . πατρός = Οἰνομάου, v. 76. Oinomaos, king of Pisa, had offered his daughter Hippodameia in marriage to any one who should overcome him in a chariot race. Fragments of the sculptures representing the ἀγών of Pelops, from the eastern pediment of the temple of Zeus, have been unearthed at Olympia.

σχεθέμεν: It is better to make the whole passage from Πισάτα . . . σχεθέμεν explanatory to γάμον than to make γάμον “bride,” in apposition to Ἱπποδάμειαν. σχ. “to win.”

οἶος ἐν ὄρφνᾳ: Cf. P. 1.23: ἐν ὄρφναισιν. A similar scene, O. 6.58, where Iamos invokes Poseidon by night.

ἄπυεν: Loud call to the loud sea. ἠπύειν, of a cry that is intended to carry — “halloo.”

πὰρ ποδί: On παρά, with dat., see v. 21.

εἶπε: Regular word to introduce the language of the speaker. Hence seldom with any other than the finite construction in the best period.

Φίλια δῶρα: Note the effective position and the shyness.

ἐς χάριν τέλλεται: “Come up to favor” = “count aught in one's favor.” Verg. Aen. 4, 317, cited by Dissen, is not so delicate: “fuit aut tibi quicquam dulce meum.

πέδασον . . . πόρευσον . . . πέλασον: Neither the three aorists nor the three π̓ς are accidental.

κράτει . . . πέλασον=κρ. πρόσμιξον. Cf. v. 22.

Oinomaos was wont to transfix the suitors from behind.

Epode 3

θυγατρός: The sense was fairly complete with νάμον. Compare the structure of the strophe. P. likes this method of welding the parts of the triad, e. g., O. 2.105: Θήρωνος. O. 6.50: πατρός. O. 9.53: νεωτέρων. With the nominative the effect is startling. See P. 11.22.

μέγας . . . λαμβάνει: “Great peril takes no coward wight.” λ., according to one Schol.=καταλαμβάνει, “takes possession of,” “inspires” (cf. P. 4.71: τίς δὲ κίνδυνος κρατεροῖς ἀδάμαντος δῆσεν ἅλοις;); according to another= δέχεται, “admits of,” “allows of,” less vigorous.

ἄναλκιν οὐ φῶτα: So I. 1, 15: ἀλλοτρίαις οὐ χερσί. The rhythm calls for a prolonged οὐ, and ἄναλκιν is thought over again with φῶτα. “A coward — no! no coward wight.”

οἷσιν: Not to be dissected into τούτων οἷσιν.

τά: So Mommsen after good MSS. Doric for τί.

ἀνώνυμον . . . μάταν: An impressive cumulation in which it must be remembered that καθήμενος means more than “sitting” in English. It is “sitting idle, useless.”

ἕψοι: “Nurse.”

μάταν: “Aimlessly,” “and all to no good end.”

ὑποκείσεται: Acc. to Schol.=προκείσεται. “On this I shall take my stand.” “This struggle shall be my business.”

πρᾶξιν: “Achievement,” “consummation,” not yet colorless.

δίδοι = δίδου: More solemn and impressive than the aorist with which he began.

ἔννεπεν: Bergk writes ἤνεπεν everywhere in P. A formal imperf., but it has no clear imperfect force in P.

ἀκράντοις: ἐπί in ἐφάψατο eases the dat., which P. however uses, as well as the genitive, with verbs of contact. Dative P. 8.60; N. 8.36; Genitive O. 9.13; P. 3.29.

ἀγάλλων: “Honoring,” “by way of honoring.” N. 5.43.

δίφρον . . . χρύσεον: v. 42.

πτεροῖσιν: The horses of Pelops on the chest of Kypselos were winged, Paus. 5, 17, 7. πτ. instrumental rather than local.

Strophe 4

ἕλεν . . . σύνευνον: Commonly set down as a zeugma, yet hardly so to be considered. “He overcame Oinomaos, and the maid to be his bedfellow.” τε, consequential.

Οἰνομάου βίαν: β. not otiose.

τέκε: So the best MSS. short in Aiolic. τέκε τε, the reading of the inferior MSS., would suggest a change of subject, not surprising in Greek, but clearly a metrical correction.

ἀρεταῖσι μεμαότας: “Forward in deeds of valor.” Not “to deeds of valor,” for which there is no warrant, as Il. 8. 327, and 22, 326, have ἐπί. The Schol., however, understands the passage as ἐπιθυμοῦντας τῆς ἀρετῆς καὶ ταύτης ἀντεχομένους, thus giving μεμαότας the Pindaric construction of a verb of approach, ἅπτεσθαι, θιγεῖν. Ἀρεταῖσι μεμαλότας, another reading, is frigid. P. does not personify . The Scholiasts give the names of the six, among whom figure Atreus and Thyestes. Pindar is supposed not to know the horrors of the house any more than Homer, but one cannibalic incident was enough for one poem, to say nothing of the rule τὰ καλὰ τρέψαι ἔξω.

αἱμακουρίαις=τοῖς τῶν νεκρῶν ἐναγίσμασι. A Boeotian word (Schol.). The yearly offering was the sacrifice of a black ram, Paus. 5, 13, 2.

μέμικται: With ἐν, I. 2, 29. On μ. see v. 22.

πόρῳ κλιθείς: The conception is that of support (instrumental).

τύμβον ἀμφίπολον: See O. 10 (11), 26: ἀγῶνα . . . ἀρχαίῳ σάματι πὰρ Πέλοπος βωμῶν ἑξάριθμον. The tomb of Pelops was near the great altar of Zeus in the Altis.

παρὰ βωμῷ: On παρά, see v. 20.

τὸ δὲ κλέος . . . δέδορκε: Echo of λάμπει δέ ϝοι κλέος, v. 23. Combine τὸ κλέος τᾶν Ὀλυμπιάδων and ἐν δρόμοις Πέλοπος. The δρόμοι refers not to the exploits of Pelops, but to the scene (ἵνα), where not only speed but strength is shown.

δέδορκε: Perceptual perfect = present. Compare ὄπωπα, ὄδωδα. Glory is an ὀφθαλμός.

ταχυτὰς ποδῶν . . . ἀκμαί τ᾽ ἰσχύος: The two great elements of speed and strength are set forth, N. 9.12, ἰσχύος τ᾽ ἀνδρῶν ἁμίλλαις ἅρμασί τε γλαφυροῖς. Here ποδῶν suggests the ἀκαμαντοπόδων ἵππων ἄωτον (O. 3.3). There is another division, πόνος δαπάνα τε, with the same complementary τε (O. 5.15), the πόνος for the feats of bodily strength (θρασύπονοι), the δαπάνα for the horse-race (δαπάνᾳ χαῖρον ἵππων, I. 3, 47).

ἐρίζεται: The middle of reciprocal action, as if we had πόδες ταχεῖς ἐρίζονται. Compare I. 4 (5), 4: καὶ γὰρ ἐριζόμεναι νᾶες ἐν πόντῳ . . . θαυμασταὶ πέλονται.

λοιπὸν ἀμφὶ βίοτον: His life has light on both hands.

μελιτόεσσαν: “Delicious,” which we also extend beyond its proper sphere.

Antistrophe 4

ἀέθλων γ᾽ ἕνεκεν: The necessary amari aliquid. “So far as sunshine is to be found in games.” “Religiose dictum” (Dissen). Then follows a bit of cheerful philosophy.

τὸ δ᾽ αἰεὶ . . . βροτῶν: “The highest boon is aye the blessing of the day.” τὸ αἰεὶ παράμερον ἐσλόν is not, as one of the old Scholia has it, τὸ καθ᾽ ἡμέραν καὶ ἀδιαλείπτως παρὰ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἀγαθόν. P. emphasizes the supremeness of the day's blessing as it comes.

ἐσλόν: A curious Boeotian form everywhere in Pindar.

παντὶ βροτῶν: The reading of the best MSS., as if ἑκάστῳ βροτῶν or παντί τινι βροτῶν. Compare also Plat. Legg. 6, 774 c:πᾶσι τῶν ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει.

ἐμὲ δὲ στεφανῶσαι: P. passes over to his highest duty and his highest pleasure.

ἱππείῳ νόμῳ: The rider-tune, τὸ Καστόρειον (Castor gaudet equis), well suited to the achievement. Compare P. 2.69: τὸ Καστόρειον δ᾽ ἐν Αἰολίδεσσι χορδαῖς θἐλων, I. 1, 16: Καστορείῳ Ἰολάοἰ ἐναρμόξαι νιν ὕμνῳ. The Aiolians were the great equestrians of Greece.

πέποιθα ... μή: Verbs of believing incline to the swearing negative μή. “I am confident,” “I am ready to swear that.”

ἀμφότερα: Adv., like ἀμφότερον.

ἄμμε: With Mommsen for ἄμα.

δαιδαλωσέμεν: Acc. to Mommsen, an old aor. inf., like ἀξέμεν, Il. 24. 663. But even if this is granted, it does not affect the sphere of time, as an aorist inf., after such a verb as πέποιθα, may be thrown into the future. See note on ἔλπομαι, P. 1.43. The compliment of a comparison with the past is not so great as with the future. The case O. 2.102 is different.

ὕμνων πτυχαῖς: “Sinuous songs,” the in and out of choral song and music and dance.

τεαῖσι . . . μερίμναισιν: Depends on ἐπίτροπος. μέριμναι, as in N. 3.69: σεμνὸν ἀγλααῖσι μερίμναις Πυθίου. Here God makes the plans of Hieron his own.

μήδεται: Might be used absol. “Is full of watchful thought.” Dissen compare N. 6.62: ἕπομαι δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς ἔχων μελέταν, but it would be easy to get an acc. μερίμνας out of the dat., “is meditating the accomplishment of them.” Schol.: μήδεται δέ, ἐργάζεταί δε νικητήν.

ἔχων τοῦτο κᾶδος: “With this for his great concern.”

εἰ δὲ μὴ ταχὺ λίποι: The original wish element is plain in all or nearly all Pindar's ideal conditionals. Subject of λίποι is θεός, and λίποι is intr.

γλυκυτέραν: Sc. μέριμναν, “a sweeter care,” “a sweeter victory.”

κεν . . . κλεΐξειν: κεν with fut. inf. here, and only here, in P. Some of the Scholiasts use the aor. in the paraphrase. But it is better not to change. The construction is due to anacoluthia rather than to survival.

Epode 4

σὺν ἅρματι θοῷ: For σύν compare N. 10.48: σὺν ποδῶν σθένει νικᾶσαι, and the older use of Lat. cum.

ἐπίκουρον . . . ὁδὸν λόγων: Combine ἐπίκουρον λόγων. The path is the path of song, which will help forward the glory of Hieron, as told in the λόγοι by the λόγιοι. See P. 1.94: ὀπιθόμβροτον αὔχημα δόξας | οἶον ἀποιχομένων ἀνδρῶν δίαιταν μανύει καὶ λογίοις καὶ ἀοιδοῖς. The path is to be opened by poesy for rhetoric.

παρ᾽ εὐδείελον . . . Κρόνιον: The famous hill at Olympia, on the summit of which sacrifices were offered to Kronos. See O. 5.17; 6, 64; 9, 3. The sunniness of Olympia is emphasized, O. 3.24.

βέλος . . . τρέφσι: Poetical and musical bolts are familiar. O. 2.91; 9, 5; 13, 95; P. 1.12; I. 4 (5), 46.

ἀλκᾷ: Dissen comb. with καρτερώτατον, and compare O. 13.52: πυκνότατον παλάμαις. So, too, the Schol. It is more vigorous to combine it with τρέφει, as Böckh does. “Keeps in warlike plight.”

τρέφει: “Nurses,” “keeps.” τ., a favorite word with Sophokles, and so perhaps ridiculed by Ar. Vesp. 110:αἰγιαλὸν τρέφει” .

ἐπ᾽ ἄλλοισι: ἐπί = “in,” though it suggests the various altitudes of the great.

κορυφοῦται: “Heads itself,” “caps itself.” The topmost summit is for kings.

μηκέτι: ἔτι suggests the temptation; see v. 5.

πάπταινε πόρσιον: P. 3.22: παπταίνει τὰ πόρσω. I. 6, 44: τὰ μακρὰ δ᾽ εἴ τις παπταίνει. π., originally of a restless, uneasy search in every direction. In P. πάπταινε is little, if anything, more than σκόπει. “Look no further.”

εἴη: Asyndeton in a prayer. The present is more solemn and less used in prose than γένοιτο. P. 1.29: εἴη, Ζεῦ, τὶν ἔη ϝανδάνειν.

τοῦτον: “Thy.” Pronoun of the second person.

τοσσάδε: “All my days.”

σοφίᾳ = ἐπὶ σοφίᾳ. ς. is “poetic art.” The tone is high enough, for P. pairs himself with Hieron by the parallel τε . . . τε, “as . . . so” (σέ τε . . . ἐμέ τε), but ἐόντα is part of the prayer, and not an assertion merely.

Akragas (Agrigentum) was a daughter of Gela. Gela was founded, Ol. 22, 4 (689 B.C.), by a Rhodian colony; Akragas more than a hundred years afterwards, Ol. 49, 4 (581 B.C.). In Ol. 52, 3 (570 B.C.) the notorious Phalaris made himself tyrant of the city, and, after a rule of sixteen years, was dethroned by Telemachos, the grandfather of Emmenes or Emmenides, who gave his name to the line, and became the father of Ainesidamos. Under the sons of Ainesidamos, Theron and Xenokrates, the name of the Emmenidai was brought to the height of its glory, and an alliance formed with the ruling house of Syracuse. Damareta, the daughter of Theron, married first Gelon, and, upon his death, Polyzelos, his brother. Theron married a daughter of Polyzelos, and, finally, Hieron married a daughter of Xenokrates.

The Emmenidai belonged to the ancient race of the Aigeidai, to which Pindar traced his origin, and claimed descent from Kadmos, through Polyneikes, who was the father of Thersandros by Argeia, daughter of Adrastos. Evidently a roving, and doubtless a quarrelsome, race, the descendants of Thersandros went successively to Sparta, to Thera, to Rhodes, and finally to Akragas. Such was the ancestry of Theron, who made himself master of Akragas by a trick, which he is said to have redeemed by a just, mild, and beneficent reign. Under his rule Akragas reached its highest eminence, and Theron's sway extended to the neighborhood of Himera and the Tyrrhenian sea. When he drove out Terillos, tyrant of Himera, and seized his throne, Terillos applied to his son-in-law, Anaxilas of Rhegion, for help, who, in his turn, invoked the aid of the Carthaginians. Thereupon Theron summoned to his assistance his son-in-law, Gelon, of Syracuse, and in the famous battle of Himera the Sicilian princes gained a brilliant victory. (See Introd. to Ol. 1.) The enormous booty was spent on the adornment of Syracuse and Akragas. Akragas became one of the most beautiful cities of the world, and the ruins of Girgenti are still among the most imposing remains of antiquity. A few years after the battle of Himera, Gelon died, Ol. 75, 3 (478 B.C.), and was succeeded by his brother Hieron in the rule of Syracuse. To the other brother, Polyzelos, were assigned the command of the army and the hand of Damareta, daughter of Theron, widow of Gelon, with the guardianship of Gelon's son; but the two brothers had not been on the best terms before, and Hieron took measures to get rid of Polyzelos, who was a popular prince. Polyzelos took refuge with Theron, who had married his daughter, and who in consequence of this double tie refused to give him up to Hieron. The Himeraians, oppressed by Theron's son Thrasydaios, made propositions to Hieron; two cousins of Theron, Kapys and Hippokrates, joined his enemies, and the armies of Hieron and Theron faced each other on the banks of the Gela. Thanks, however, to the good offices of the poet Simonides, peace was made; Polyzelos was suffered to return, and Hieron married the daughter of Xenokrates, brother of Theron. The rebellious spirits in Himera were quelled, and our just, mild, and beneficent prince, who was elevated to the rank of a hero after his death, so thinned the ranks of the citizens by executions that it was necessary to fill them up by foreigners. Kapys and Hippokrates having been put to flight, Theron sat firmly on his throne again, and, after putting to death all his enemies, had the great satisfaction of gaining an Olympian victory, Ol. 76 (476 B.C.), which Pindar celebrates in this ode and the following.

Theron died Ol. 76, 4; Xenokrates, his brother, who won two of the victories celebrated by Pindar (P. 6 and I. 2), died either before him or soon after. Thrasydaios, his son and successor, whose cruelty had roused the Himeraians to revolt, chastised the Agrigentines with scorpions, and attacked Hieron with 20,000 mercenaries. After his defeat, Akragas and Himera rose against him, and he fled to Megara, where he died, and the revolted cities became democracies. Thrasybulus, the son of Xenokrates, continued to live in Akragas, but the memory of Thrasydaios was a stench in the nostrils of the Himeraians; hence their gratitude to Ζεὺς Ἐλευθέριος and Σώτειρα Τύχα for having delivered them from such a monster (O. 12).

In the opening of the second Olympian, Pindar himself points out the threefold cord that runs through the ode, and recent commentators have found triads everywhere. It is best to limit ourselves to the poet's own lines. When Pindar asks, “What god, what hero, what man shall we celebrate?” he means to celebrate all three, and god, hero, and man recur throughout: the god helping, the hero toiling, the man achieving. God is the disposer, the hero the leader, and the man the follower. The man, the Olympian victor, must walk in the footsteps of the greater victor, must endure hardness as the hero endured hardness, in order that he may have a reward, as the hero had his reward, by the favor of God. This is a poem for one who stands on the solemn verge beyond which lies immortal, heroic life. But we must not read a funeral sermon into it, and we must notice how the poet counteracts the grave tone of the poem by the final herald cry, in which he magnifies his own office and champions the old king.

Hymns, lords of the lyre, what god, what hero, what man shall we sound forth? Pisa belongs to Zeus (θεός), Olympia was stablished by Herakles (ἥρως), Theron (ἀνήρ) hath won the great four-horse chariot race. His sires (ἥρωες) founded Akragas; Zeus (θεός) send the future glorious as the past has been (vv. 1-17). Done cannot be made undone. The past was toilsome and bitter, but forgetfulness comes with bliss, and suffering expires in joyance. So in the line of Theron himself, the daughters of Kadmos (ἡρῷναι, ἠοῖαι), Semele, Ino, suffering once, as the founders of Akragas toiled once, are now glorified. Yet this light was quenched in deeper gloom. After Semele, after Ino, comes the rayless darkness of Oidipus, so dark that even his name is shrouded. Polyneikes fell, but Thersandros was left, and after him came Theron (ἀνήρ), and Theron's noble house, with its noble victories (vv. 17-57). But this is not all. Earthly bliss is not everything. There is another world, and the poet sets its judgment-seat, unfolds the happiness of the blessed, and introduces into the harmony of the blissful abode a marvellous discord of the damned. In that land we hear of Kronos and of Rhea (θεοί), Peleus, and Kadmos, and Achilles (ἥρωες). Of men there is expressive silence (vv. 58-91). Theron is old, and the poet, instead of working out his triad mechanically, vindicates the reserve of his art. He has arrows enough in his quiver; he has power enough in his pinion. He can shoot, he can fly, whithersoever he will; and now, that we have left that other world, and have come back to this realm of Zeus, he bends his bow, he stoops his flight, to Akragas. Now he can praise Theron with all the solemnity but without the gloom of an epitaph, and the last words fall like a benediction on the gracious king (vv. 92110).

There is no myth proper. The canvas is covered by the prefiguration-picture of the house of Kadmos and the vision of the world beyond. Innocent suffering is recompensed by deep happiness, heroic toil by eternal reward. Theron's achievements have the earnest of an immortal future. Time cannot express his deeds of kindness.

The rhythms are Paionian, manly, vigorous, triumphant, but Bakcheiac strains seem to have been introduced with the same effect as the belts of darkness which chequer the poem.

Of the five triads, the first opens the theme, the last concludes it; the second triad deals with the mythic past; the third returns to Theron, and connects the second with the fourth, which is taken up with the world beyond.

Strophe 1

ἀναξιφόρμιγγες: Originally song dominated instrumental music. Music was “married to immortal verse,” as the woman to the man. Pratinas ap. Athen. 14, 617 D. makes song the queen: τὰν ἀοιδὰν κατέστασε Πιερὶς βασίλειαν: δ᾽ αὐλὸς ὕστερον χορευέτω: καὶ γάρ ἐσθ᾽ ὑπηρέτας. In P. 1 init. the φόρμιγξ gives the signal, but there is no difference in the relation.

τίνα θεόν, τίν᾽ ἥρωα, τίνα δ᾽ ἄνδρα: Imitated by Hor. Od. 1, 12:quem virum aut heroa lyra vel acri | tibia sumis celebrare, Clio, | quem deum?” Horace follows the artificial climactic arrangement, which brings him up to — Augustus. So Isok. Euag. 39: οὐδεὶς οὔτε θνητὸς οὔθ᾽ ἡμίθεος οὔτ᾽ ἀθάνατος. Antiphon (1, 27) gives us Pindar's order: οὔτε θεοὺς οὔθ᾽ ἥρωας οὔτ᾽ ἀνθρώπους αἰσχυνθεῖσα οὐδὲ δείσασα. The triplet here announced runs through the poem. To Zeus (A) belongs the place (a), to Herakles (B) the festival (b), to Theron (C) the prize (c), and the order is * with a subtle variation of case.

κελαδήσομεν: See O. 1.9. Whether we have subj. or fut. here it is impossible to tell, nor does it matter.

Ὀλυμπιάδα . . . Ἡρακλέης: See O. 10 (11), 56, for the story.

ἀκρόθινα: Compare O. 10 (11), 62: τὰν πολέμοιο δόσιν ἀκρόθινα διελὼν ἔθυε καὶ πενταετηρίδ᾽ ἔστασεν ἑορτάν. Usually ἀκροθίνια, as in N. 7.41.

γεγωνητέον: “We must proclaim so far as voice can be heard.” The post-Homeric -τέος forms are not common in lyric poetry.

ὄπιν: So Hermann, as acc. of extent to δίκαιον. Others ὄπι. Most of the MSS. have ὀπί, glossed by διὰ φωνῆς λαμπρᾶς, and all have ξένον, which is interpreted as δίκαιον ὄντα κατὰ τὴν φιλίαν τῶν ξένων. ὄπις as a masc. subst. = ὀπιζόμενος (cf. P. 4.86; I. 3 [4], 5) would not be unwelcome to me, “a just respecter of guests.” So λάτρις = λατρεύων and σίνις = σινόμενος, besides others in -ις.

ξένων: Supposed to have reference to Polyzelos, the fugitive brother of Hieron.

ἔρεισμ᾽ Ἀκράγαντος: The reference is to the great day of Himera. So Athens, for her share in the Persian war, is called (fr. IV. 4, 2) Ἑλλάδος ἔρεισμα. The compliment is heightened by the well - known strength of Akragas.

εὐωνύμων . . . πατέρων: Notice the auspicious beginning of the last lines in the four stanzas: v. 8, εὐωνύμων, v. 16, εὔφρων, v. 38, εὐθυμιᾶν, and, like a distant echo, v. 104, εὐεργέταν.

ὀρθόπολιν: Continuation of the figure in ἔρεισμα. This raising of the city to its height is supposed to refer to the adornment of Akragas with great temples and other magnificent public buildings.

Antistrophe 1

καμόντες οἵ: This position of the relative is not so harsh as in Latin, on account of the stronger demonstrative element of the Greek relative. So v. 25: ἔπαθον αἳ μεγάλα.

θυμῷ: Od. 1. 4: πολλὰ δ᾽ γ᾽ ἐν πόντῳ πάθεν ἄλγεα ὃν κατὰ θυμόν.

ἱερόν: All cities were dedicated to some deity, but Akragas especially, having been given to Persephone by Zeus, εἰς ἀνακαλυπτήρια. Preller, Gr. Myth. 1, 485.

ἔσχον: “Got” (of conquest). So P. 1.65. The ingressiveness of ἔσχον is due to the meaning of the verb.

οἴκημα ποταμοῦ = οἴκημα ποτάμιον. In such combinations the full adj. is more common than the fossilized adj. or genitive. Compare P. 6.6: ποταμίᾳ Ἀκράγαντι. The river bore the same name as the city. Compare further Eur. Med. 846:ἱερῶν ποταμῶν πόλις” , Theogn. 785: Εὐρώτα δονακοτρόφου ἀγλαὸν ἄστυ, and O. 13.61, where Corinth is called ἄστυ Πειράνας.

Σικελίας . . . ὀφθαλμός: Compare O. 6.16: ποθέω στρατιᾶς ὀφθαλμὸν ἐμᾶς. Athens and Sparta were the two eyes of Greece. See Leptines ap. Aristot. Rhet. 3, 10, 7, whence Milton's “Athens, the eye of Greece.”

αἰὼν . . . μόρσιμος: “Time followed as it was allotted.”

ἔφεπε: In innumerable passages αἰών, χρόνος, βίος are represented as the attendants of men. This personification is easier to the Greek than it is to us, and must be looked for. See O. 6.56.

πλοῦτόν τε καὶ χάριν: Notice the close connection of “wealth and honor.” χ. is the glory lent by poesy, and “wealth and poesy” would represent the material and the spiritual elements of happiness. On χάρις, see O. 1.18. 30.

γνησίαις ἐπ᾽ ἀρεταῖς: In prose we should consider ἐπί “on account of.” Here it is more plastic. “Wealth and poesy crown their native gifts.” See O. 11 (10), 13: κόσμον ἐπὶ στεφάνῳ, and compare note on P. 5.124.

Κρόνιε παῖ Π̔έας: Much more vigorous than παῖ Κρόνου τε καὶ Ῥέας, though we must not forget dialectic preferences for the forms in -ιος. Rhea is mentioned again with Kronos, v. 85: πόσις πάντων Ῥέας ὑπέρτατον ἐχοίσας θρόνον, and Zeus is called παῖς Ῥέας, fr. XI. 5. For this Kronos element, see O. 1.10. P. himself was a servant of Rhea (Magna Mater). The special allusions detected by the commentators to Theron's personal history are due to fanciful combinations.

ἕδος Ὀλύμπου: Here again Ὀλύμπου is = Ὀλύμπιον, as ποταμοῦ = ποτάμιον. The triplet here reminds one of the triplet in the first strophe, and by assigning ἀέθλων κορυφάν to Herakles (O. 6.69), and πόρον τ᾽ Ἀλφεοῦ to Theron (compare O. 1.20: παρ᾽ Ἀλφεῷ σύτο δέμας), we should have the same order.

πόρον τ᾽ Ἀλφεοῦ: So, O. 10 (11), 53: “The watercourse of the Alpheios.” So-called genitive of apposition.

ἰανθείς = εὐφρανθείς, but the old “warming,” “dissolving,” “melting” sense is not wholly lost. See P. 1.11.

σφίσιν depends on κόμισον λοιπῷ γένει. There is no σχῆμα καθ᾽ ὅλον καὶ μέρος for the dat. For the construction, compare O. 8.83, and P. 1.7;

ἵνα δοκῇ θεὸν τεκεῖν
ἡμῖν τε τιμὴ παντὶ τῷ γένει παρῇ.

κόμισον, like our “convey,” always connotes “care,” “safety.”

Epode 1

τῶν . . . τέλος: Familiar commonplace. The meaning is essentially complete without ἔργων τέλος, so that these two words come in as a reinforcement. “When fully consummated.”

ἀποίητον: We should expect ἄπρακτον like Lat. factum infectum, but ἀποίητον embraces ἄπρακτον.

λάθα: N. 10.24: νικάσαις δὶς ἔσχεν Θεαῖος δυσφόρων λάθαν πόνων. P. 1.46: εἰ γὰρ πᾶς χρόνος καμάτων ἐπίλασιν παράσχοι.

πότμῳ σὺν εὐδαίμονι: σύν semi-personifies πότμος.

γένοιτ᾽ ἄν: “Must come.” “Cannot fail to come.”

ἐσλῶν=ἐσθλῶν, itself a poetic word. See O. 1.99; 2, 69.

ὑπὸ χαρμάτων: ὑπό, with the genitive of things, keeps the personification alive in prose. But the “under” element of ὑπό is felt in P., though, of course, it is more evident with the dat., “Under the weight of.” χαρμ. is echoed in v. 109 (Mezger).

παλίγκοτον δαμασθέν: “Quell'd in spite's despite.” The πῆμα resists, but resists in vain. παλίγκοτον is adversative, not attributive merely.

Strophe 2

πέμψῃ: So the Ambrosianus and the Schol. Otherwise πέμπῃ might stand. The durative tenses of πέμπειν are often used where we should expect the complexive (or aoristic) tenses. π. has not the same notion of “detachment” as our “send.”

ἀνεκὰς . . . ὑψηλόν: Ar. Vesp. 18:ἀνεκὰς ἐς τὸν οὐρανόν.ὑψηλόν is predicative. The figure is that of a wheel.

ἕπεται: “Sorts with,” “suits,” ἁρμόζει, Schol.

εὐθρόνοις: Elsewhere of goddesses only, P. 9.65; N. 3.83; I. 2, 5. Ὁμηρικὸς ζῆλος, says a Scholiast. Cf. Il. 8. 565: ἐύθρονον Ἠῶ μίμνον, al.

Κάδμοιο κούραις: Semele, Ino, Autonoë, Agaue, were all in trouble. P. selects those who emerge.

ἔπαθον αἵ: See v. 8. Ino, pursued by her mad husband, leaped into the sea and became a goddess, Leukothea. Semele, killed by lightning because she wished to see her celestial lover, Zeus, in full array, was afterwards received up into heaven.

πένθος δὲ πιτνεῖ: An intercalated reflection, and not a part of the narrative, as ἔπιτνεν would make it.

βαρύ: Position as in παλίγκοτον δαμασθέν, v. 22.

κρεσσόνων πρὸς ἀγ.: “Before the face of mightier blessings.”

βρόμῳ κεραυνοῦ: The instrumental “by” is more poetic than the locative “mid.” The tenderness of Semele is brought out by the womanly τανυέθειρα.

Παλλάς: The Scholiasts call attention to the significant omission of Hera; the specific mention of Pallas may be explained in half a dozen ways. She was one of the guardian deities of Akragas, a close sympathizer with her father. The triad here is not to be emphasized.

παῖς κισσοφόρος: Dionysos. Cf. fr. IV. 3, 9: τὸν κισσοδέταν θεόν.

Antistrophe 2

ἐν καὶ θαλάσσᾳ: Here καί belongs to λέγοντι (Bossler).

κόραισι Νηρῆος ἁλίαις: Compare v. 13: Κρόνιε παῖ Ῥέας. The Nereids are the daughters of Nereus and the sea ( ἅλς). Nereus is “water” (mod. Gr. νερό), as his spouse is Doris — the sea being a symbol of riches (ἔστιν θάλασσα, τίς δέ νιν κατασβέσει;).

βίοτον ἄφθιτον . . . τὸν ὅλον ἀμφὶ χρόνον: The expression seems redundant, unless we remember that βίοτον expresses the enjoyment of life, and not the mere duration (χρόνος).

τὸν ὅλον . . . χρόνον: Compare πᾶς χρόνος, P. 1.46. On ἀμφί see O. 1.97, where the “both” signification is plainer. As περί w. acc. may mean “around” (without) and “around” (within), so ἀμφί may be “about” (without) and “about” (within), and so be loosely used for ἐν.

βροτῶν γε: However it may stand with high and mighty heroines.

πεῖρας θανάτου: The θάνατος is the πεῖρας. Cf. v. 19: ἔργων τέλος.

οὐδ᾽ ἡσύχιμον ἁμέραν , κτἑ.: Instead of a mechanical τέλος ἁμέρας to balance πεῖρας θανάτου, instead of a mechanical ὁπόθ᾽ ἱξόμεθα to balance ὁπότε τελευτάσομεν, P. varies the structure: “Surely in the case of mortals a certain goal of death is in no wise fixed, nor [is it fixed] when we shall bring one day, child of a single sun (spanned though it be but by a single sun), with unfretted good to its end in peace.” The position removes all harshness. βροτῶν at the head of the sentence is only semi-dependent. ἡσύχιμον ἁμέραν, in like manner, allows us to wait for its regimen.

παῖδ᾽ ἀελίου: The personification may have faded somewhat, but the mind dissociates τελευτάσομεν from the apposition.

ἔβαν: Gnomic.

Epode 2

Μοῖρα: In P. Moira is above the gods, but in harmony with them.

τε: “She who.”

πατρώιον , κτἑ.: “Maintains as an heirloom [= from sire to son] this fair fate of theirs.”

τῶνδε: As usu. of the victor's house, the Emmenidai.

ἐπί τι . . . πῆμα: The calamity is gently touched. The name of Oidipus is not even mentioned. Where P. does mention the hero, it is to honor him, P. 4.263.

παλιντράπελον: “Reverse.” Pendant to παλίγκοτον δαμασθέν, v. 22.

ἐξ οὗπερ: “Since.”

μόριμος υἱός= κατὰ μοῖραν αὐτῷ γενόμενος.

συναντόμενος: On his way from the Delphic oracle, where Apollo had told him that he would be the murderer of his father that begot him (So. O.R. 793).

χρησθὲν | παλαίφατον τέλεσσεν: P. ignores the first part as recorded by So. O.R. 791: ὡς μητρὶ μὲν χρείη με μιχθῆναι.

Strophe 3

ὀξεἶ Ἐρινύς: ὀξέως βλέπουσα, Schol. She saw, while Oidipus was blind. So. Ai. 835: καλῶ δ᾽ ἀρωγοὺς τὰς ἀεί τε παρθένους, ἀεὶ δ᾽ ὁρώσας πάντα τἀν βροτοῖς πάθη, | σεμνὰς Ἐρινῦς τανύποδας.

σὺν ἀλλαλοφονίᾳ: The comitative σύν with the dat., instead of the simple instrumental dat., which has forgotten its comitative origin. Cf. P. 12.21: ὄφρα . . . σὺν ἔμτεσι μιμήσαιτ᾽ ἐρικλάγκταν γόον.

γένος ἀρήιον: “His fighting stock,” his sons, the spear-side of his house.

Θέρσανδρος: The son of Polyneikes and his wife Argeia, daughter of Adrastos.

ἐν μάχαις . . . πολέμου: He was slain by Telephos before Troy.

θάλος: Cf. O. 6.68: Ἡρακλέης σεμνὸν θάλος Ἀλκαϊδᾶν.

ἀρωγόν: Aigialeus, the only son of Adrastos, had fallen before Thebes, so that Thersandros became the avenger of the family in the war of the Epigonoi. (So Böckh with the Schol.)

σπέρματος . . . ῥίζαν: “Seed root,” origin.

ἔχοντα: So Aristarchos. The MSS. have ἔχοντι, which some Scholiasts take as ἔχουσι, while others note the change from dat. (ἔχοντι) to acc. (τὸν Αἰνησιδάμου), a change which, however natural from substantive to participle, is not natural from participle to substantive.

μελέων λυρᾶν τε: Blended in v. 1: ἀναξιφόρμιγγες ὕμνοι.

Antistrophe 3

γέρας: “Prize.”

ὁμόκλαρον: Likewise victorious. The brother was Xenokrates. Compare P. 6 and I. 2.

κοιναί: “Impartial.”

Χάριτες: Who give and grace victories. See O. 6.76; N. 5 (end); N. 10.38.

ἄνθεα τεθρίππων: The chariots are wreathed with the flowers they have gained. See P. 9.133: πολλὰ μὲν κεῖνοι δίκον | φύλλ᾽ ἔπι καὶ στεφάνους.

δυωδεκαδρόμων: Chariots had to make twelve courses. Cf. P. 5.33. Hence O. 3.33: δωδεκάγναμπτον τέρμα, and O. 6.75.

τὸ δὲ τυχεῖν = τὸ νικῆσαι, Schol. N. 1.10: ἔστι δ᾽ ἐν εὐτυχίᾳ | πανδοξίας ἄκρον.

ἀγωνίας: The bad sense is late.

δυσφρονᾶν: Formed like εὐφρόνη, ἀφρόνη = ἀφροσύνη. The best MSS. have δυσφροσύναν παραλύει. δυσφ. is glossed by ἀθυμία. This is the recurrent thought of the ode — the balance of good and bad.

μὰν πλοῦτος: μ., a faded oath, by way of confirmation. Often used to meet objections.

ἀρεταῖς δεδαιδαλμένος: See O. 13 for a poetic lesson on the necessity of something more than wealth. Cf. P. 5.1: πλοῦτος εὐρυσθενής, ὅταν τις ἀρετᾷ κεκραμένον καθαρᾷ αὐτὸν ἀνάγῃ | πολύφιλον ἑπέταν.

τῶν τε καὶ τῶν: “This and that.” Not “good and bad,” but “indefinite blessings.” So, in prose, τὸν καὶ τόν, “this man and that man.”

βαθεῖαν ὑπέχων μέριμναν ἀγροτέραν: Acc. to the majority of interpreters this means “rousing a deep and eager yearning for achievement,” “putting into the heart of man a deep and eager mood.” So the Schol.: συνετὴν ἔχων τὴν φροντίδα πρὸς τὸ ἀγρεύειν τὰ ἀγαθά. ἀγρότερος is used of the Centaur, P. 3.4; ἀγροτέρα of Kyrene, P. 9.6. But lions are ἀγρότεροι, N. 3.46, and as μέριμνα leans in P. to the bad, and ὑπέχων occurs nowhere else in P., diversity of opinion may be pardoned. ὑπέχειν, “sustain,” is the other side of κατέχειν, “keep down,” and that other side appears, v. 21: ἐσλῶν . . . ὑπὸ χαρμάτων πῆμα θνᾴσκει | παλίγκοτον δαμασθέν. There the monster is crushed, here the high (deep) load of carking care is shouldered. Wealth is an Atlas.

Epode 3

ἀστὴρ ἀρίζηλος , κτἑ.: The shifting of the imagery is facilitated by the beginning of the epode. ἀρίζηλος = ἀρίδηλος, an Homeric word.

φέγγος is used of the sun, the moon, or any great or conspicuous light.

εἰ δέ: The passage has an enormous literature to itself. In despair, I have kept the reading of the MSS., with the interpretation “If, in truth, when one hath it (νιν = πλοῦτον) he knows (of) the future that,” etc. δέ in P. is often not far from δή. This would make the sentence an after-thought. Böckh's εἴ γε, which is simple, is not lyrical (Mommsen). εὖ δέ and ἒν δέ are not convincing conjectures. εὖτε has been suggested. Bergk considers οἶδεν to have been used once by brachylogy instead of twice, and punctuates εἰ δέ νιν ἔχων τις, οἶδεν τὸ μέλλον, “If any one that hath it knows, he (Theron) knows.” In that case, Theron would have been mentioned. Mezger makes εἴ τις οἶδεν . . . ἀνάγκᾳ the protasis, and ἴσαις δέ . . . τύρσιν the apodosis, or rather the apparent apodosis, the real apodosis being some verb of ascertainment understood. See my Lat. Gr. (3 ed.), 601. “If one knows . . . (why, then, he must know that) . . . the good,” etc. This makes δέ apodotic. See O. 3.43. It would be better to leave the first sentence frankly without an apodosis.

θανόντων: The sins committed in the world below are punished here on earth. Earth and Hades are mutual hells. P.'s view of the yonder world, as set forth in this passage, may be supplemented by the fragments of the θρῆνοι. P. believes in the continued existence of the soul after death, in transmigration, in retribution, in eternal blessedness. Immediately after death the soul is judged and sent to join the ranks of the pious or of the wicked. Good souls dwell with Pluton and Persephone in perpetual light and happiness, the bad must endure anguish past beholding for punishment and purification. If they do not mend, they are sent back to earth, and after death come again before the inexorable judgment-seat. Those who are purified return to earth in the ninth year, and are made kings, heroes, sages. When a man has maintained himself in each of these transition stages, and has kept pure from all wrong, he becomes a hero, and dwells forever in the islands of the blessed. (After Mezger.)

αὐτίκ᾽: “Straight,” εὐθέως, Schol.

ἀπάλαμνοι: Cf. O. 1.59: ἀπάλαμον βίον.

ἔτισαν: The aor. disposes of Rauchenstein's αὖτις.

τᾷδε Διὸς ἀρχᾷ: On earth. — 65: κατὰ γᾶς: κατὰ with genitive in P. only here

τις: Dread indefiniteness.

λόγον φράσαις: “Rendering his sentence.” φράζειν, of deliberate, careful, clear speech. λόγος is used of an oracle, P. 4.59.

Strophe 4

ἴσαις δὲ νύκτεσσιν αἰεί, | ἴσαις δ᾽ ἁμέραις: I follow Mommsen. The best MSS. have ἴσαις δ᾽ ἐν ἁμ. Various changes have been made to save the uniformity and avoid — for ˘ ˘ in v. 68. So, v. 67: ἴσον δέ, v. 68: ἴσα δ᾽ ἐν ἁμ., which J. H. H. Schmidt follows. Equal nights and equal days may be equal to each other (equinoctial) or equal to ours; may be equal in length or equal in character. “Equal to each other in character” seems to be the safest interpretation. “The night shineth as the day; the darkness and the light are both alike.” To some the passage means that the blessed have the same length of day and night that we do, but their lives are freer from toil. This interpretation is favored by ἀπονέστερον, which shows that the standard of comparison is earthly life, though Dissen makes it refer to the wicked.

δέκονται: It is a boon. δέρκονται, the reading of the mass of our MSS., is unmetrical, and not over-clear

οὐ χθόνα: The position of the negative in P. is especially free; here it is to be justified by οὐδὲ πόντιον ὕδωρ.

ἐν χερὸς ἀκμᾷ: So, P. 2.8: ἀγαναῖσιν ἐν χερσὶν ποικιλανίοις ἐδάμασσε πώλους. N. 1.52: ἐν χερὶ τινάσσων φάσγανον. Local more vivid than instrumental.

ἀκμᾷ: “Strength;” as ἀκμὰ ποδῶν, I. 7 (8), 37, is “speed.”

κεινὰν παρὰ δίαιταν: “For the sake of unsatisfying food,” as mortals do. This use of παρά, “along,” “by way of,” and so “by reason of,” “for the sake of,” is solitary in P., but becomes common in the later time. So παρ᾽ .

τιμίοις θεῶν: At the court of Pluton and Persephone.

ἔχαιρον: When they were on earth.

εὐορκίαις: Ps. 24, 3: Who shall stand in His holy place? He that hath clean hands and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully.

τοὶ δέ = οἱ κακοί.

ὀκχέοντι = ὀχέουσι = ὑφίστανται καὶ βαστάζουσιν (Schol.).

Antistrophe 4

ἐτόλμασαν: “Persevered.”

ἐστρὶς | ἑκατέρωθι : τρὶς ἑκατέρωθι would naturally mean six times. ἐστρίς may mean three times in all. The soul descends to Hades, then returns to earth, then descends again for a final probation.

ἔτειλαν: Act. only here in P.

Διὸς ὁδόν: The king's highway (mystic).

παρὰ Κρόνου τύρσιν: Not “along,” as in prose, but “to the neighborhood of,” as if παρὰ Κρόνον, “to the court of Kronos,” who presides over the happy isles.

ϝᾶσος: Dor. = νήσους.

ἄνθεμα χρυσοῦ = . χρυσᾶ. So I. 1, 20: φιάλαισι χρυσοῦ. Cf. P. 1.6; 4, 71. 240; N. 5.54; I. 7 (8), 67.

τὰ μὲν χερσόθεν . . . ὕδωρ δ᾽ ἄλλα: Chiasm. The world below is a brilliant repetition of the world above. The prizes are of gold — gold instead of olive and laurel. In ὕδωρ, Dissen sees an allusion to the water-parsley of the Isthmian games.

στεφάνοις: I have given what seems to be the best MS. reading. κεφαλάς is used in a gloss to explain στεφάνοις, as στ. is not applicable to χέρας, ὅρμοι being used for neck and breast, στέφανοι for heads. Bergk suggests: ὅρμοις (= ἐκ in Lokrian inscriptions) τῶν χέρες ἀναπλέκοντι καὶ στεφάνοιςὅρμοις and στεφάνοις being Aeolic accusatives.

Epode 4

βουλαῖς ἐν ὀρθαῖσι: Like ἐν νόμοις, P. 1.62; ἐν νόμῳ, N. 10.28; I. 2, 38; and ἐν δίκᾳ, O. 2.18; 6, 12; P. 5.14; N. 5.14. ἐν δίκῃ is common even in prose

Ῥαδαμανθυος: The τις of v. 65.

ὃν . . . πάρεδρον: The best MSS. have ὃν πατὴρ ἔχει γᾶς with a gap. The true reading cannot be elicited with certainty from the Scholia and glosses. Even in antiquity the critics were at a loss. I have resigned myself with Dissen and Schneidewin to the reading of the interpolated MSS.

Π̔έας . . . θρόνον: Rhea, as mother of the gods, thrones above all.

Πηλεύς: An Hellenic saint, a Greek Joseph. See N. 5.26, where he resists the wiles of Hippolyta, and I. 7 (8), 41: ὅντ᾽ εὐσεβέστατον φάτις Ἰωλκοῦ τράφειν πεδίον. Peleus and Kadmos are associated again, P. 3.87. Here they are linked by τε καί on account of the like fortune in marriage, l. c. 91: ὁπόθ᾽ Ἁρμονίαν γᾶμεν βοῶπιν | δὲ Νηρέος εὐβούλου Θέτιν παῖδα κλυτάν.

Κάδμος: Called ἀντίθεος, P. 3.88.

Ἀχιλλέα: ἐν νήσοις μακάρων σέ φασιν εἶναι | ἵναπερ ποδώκης Ἀχιλεύς, acc. to the famous skolion of Kallistratos ap. Athen. 15, 695 A. See Plat. Symp. 179 E, 180 B. Acc. to N. 4.49 Achilles has another abode, an island in the Euxine. It has been fancied that Theron was a Peleus, a Kadmos, and an Achilles in one.

Strophe 5

ἄμαχον ἀστραβῆ κίονα: An allusion to Ἕκτωρ (acc. to Greek feeling = *ἐχέτωρ) as the “upholder” is not impossible, though the metaphor is common enough.

Κύκνον: Son of Poseidon, who opposed the landing of the Greeks.

θανάτῳ πόρεν: Compare P. 5.60: ἔδωκε θῆρας αἰνῷ φόβῳ, N. 1.66: φᾶσέ νιν δώσειν μόρῳ, and Lat. dare morti, “put (in)to (the maw of) death.” Instead of flattening antique personification, let us emboss our own. πορεῖν is combined with νέμειν and διδόναι, P. 5.65.

Ἀοῦς τε παῖδ᾽ Αἰθίοπα: Memnon. Kyknos, Hektor, and Memnon are grouped, I. 4 (5), 39, another triad.

πολλά μοι , κτἑ.: Asyndeton common on announcing the end.

ὑπ᾽ ἀγκῶνος: Compare Theokr. 17, 30: ὑπωλένιόν τε φαρέτρην.

βέλη: Of poetry, I. 4, 46; O. 13.93.

ἐντί: Is explained as a singular, but Gust. Meyer, Gr. Gr., § 483, dissents. It is livelier as a plural, O. 10 (11), 93; P. 1.13.

φωνάεντα συνετοῖσιν: A stock quotation, “that have a voice only for the wise.”

ἐς δὲ τὸ πάν: Sometimes written τοπάν or τόπαν to save the quantity, like σύμπαν, ἅπαν, πρόπαν. τὸ πάν is glossed by τὸ κοινόν, Shakespeare's “the general,” ποὺς πολλοὺς καὶ χυδαιοτέρους. The other rendering, “generally,” is less satisfactory. The change from the dative συνετοῖσιν to ἐς and the acc. is in P.'s manner. Mr. Verrall argues (Journal of Philol., No. XVII.) at length in favor of τοπάν from *τοπή, “divination,” a word which he elicits from τοπάζειν.

σοφός: Of poetic art.

φυᾷ: A Pindaric cry to be heard often, e. g. O. 9.107: τὸ δὲ φυᾷ κράτιστον ἅπαν, for while P. does not despise training, O. 8.60, where, by the way, he is praising a trainer, he believes in Ruskin's first rule, “Be born with genius.” God, Apollo, the Muse, the Muses, Charis, the Charites — these are the sources of the poet's inspiration. It is part and parcel of his aristocratic “blood” theory.

μαθόντες: The old sneer that finds an echo in Persius, “Quis expedivit psittaco suum χαῖρε?” The commentators refer this characteristic to Simonides and Bakchylides. Simonides was considered σοφώτατος, and if Simonides was meant, σοφὸς πολλὰ ϝειδὼς φυᾷ would be spiteful. Bakchylides was the nephew of Simonides, disciple, imitator, and collaborator of his uncle. It is supposed that P. gained the contract for writing this poem over S. and B., and hence this scornful and, we should say, ignoble note of superiority. As Simonides had just made peace between Hieron and Theron, it is very unlikely that P. should have made this arrogant fling at this time.

λάβροι: With κόρακες. The antithesis is the ὄρνις θεῖος (Mezger). Usually punctuated λάβροι παγγλωσίᾳ, κόρακες ὥς.

κόρακες ὥς . . . γαρύετον: The dual certainly suggests definite pairs, especially as it is often used with mocking effect, e. g. in Plato's Euthydemos (compare Arcades ambo). The use of the dual on metrical (?) grounds for the plural is not tolerable. Mr. Verrall's suggestion that the reference is to the two Sicilian rhetoricians, Korax and Tisias (the latter of whom was called κακοῦ κόρακος κακὸν ᾠόν) is ingenious. See P. 1.94, where the panegyric side of oratory is recognized. If we must have rivalry, why not rivalry between the old art of poetry (φυᾷ) and the new art of rhetoric (μαθόντες)? Besides, λάβροι κόρακες of this kind succeed best in the λάβρος στρατός (P. 2.87).

ἄκραντα: “Ineffectual stuff.”

Antistrophe 5

Διὸς πρὸς ὄρνιχα θεῖον: See P. 1.6. The eagle (Pindar) sits quiet and disdainful on the sceptre of Zeus. His defiant scream will come, and then the ineffectual chatter will cease. Compare

μέγαν αἰγυπιὸν δ᾽ ὑποδείσαντες τάχ̓ ἂν ἐξαίφνης εἰ σὺ φανείης,
σιγῇ πτήξειαν ἄφωνοι.

ἔπεχε νῦν σκοπῷ, κτἑ.: Resumption of the figure in vv. 92-94. Cf. N. 9.55: ἀκοντίζων σκοποἶ ἄγχιστα Μοισᾶν.

θυμέ: So N. 3.26.

τίνα βάλλομεν: Not exactly = βαλοῦμεν: “Whom are we trying to hit?” The pres. for fut., except in oracles (O. 8.42), is rare, conversational, passionate. See Thuk. 6, 91, 3.

ἐκ μαλθακᾶς . . . φρενός: The quiver usually has a hostile significance, hence φρενός is qualified. The arrows are kindly (ἀγανά), not biting (πικρά).

ἐπί: As in O. 8.48: ἐπ᾽ Ἰσθμῷ ποντίᾳ ἅρμα θοὸν τάνυεν.

τανύσαις αὐδάσομαι = τείνας τὸ τόξον ἀποφανοῦμαι (Schol.). Böckh punctuates τανύσαις: and makes it an optative (imperative opt.), counter to the Pindaric use of τοι.

αὐδάσομαι: In its full sense of “loudly proclaim.”

ἐνόρκιον λόγον: O. 6.20: μέγαν ὅρκον ὀμόσσαις.

τεκεῖν μή: The neg. is μή on account of the oath. Commentators are divided as to τεκεῖν, whether it is past or future. For the future, see O. 1.105. For the past, P. 2.60: εἰ δέ τις ἤδη κτεάτεσσί τι καὶ περὶ τιμᾷ λέγει | ἔτερόν τιν᾽ ἀν᾽ Ἑλλάδα τῶν πάροιθε γενέσθαι | χαύνᾳ πραπίδι παλαιμονεῖ κενεά. The past is better on account of the ἑκατόν γε ϝετέων: “These hundred years,” with an especial reference to Akragas, which was founded about a hundred years before (Ol. 49, 3 = 582 B.C.).

Epode 5

Θήρωνος: Effective position. Compare v. 17: λοιπῷ γένει, and O. 1.81. The sense is fairly complete in the antistrophe; and the use of the dependent genitive here renews the whole thought with a challenge. — αἶνον: In prose this word was reserved for religious occasions. P. uses ἔπαινος but once

ἐπέβα: Is supposed to have an actual basis in the behavior of Kapys and Hippokrates, two kinsmen of Theron, who went over to Hieron (Schol.). But gnomic aorists have an actual basis also.

οὐ δίκᾳ συναντόμενος: “Not mated with justice, but [set on] by rabid men. Compare I. 2, 1: χρυσαμπύκων | ἐς δίφρον Μοισᾶν ἔβαινον κλυτᾷ φόρμιγγι συναντόμενοι.

μάργων: Of men besotted in their fury. So μαργουμένους, N. 9.19.

τὸ λαλαγῆσαι θέλων: The articular infinitive, which is not fully developed in P., is seldom used after verbs of will and endeavor, and then always has a strong demonstrative force — often with a scornful tang. So. Ant. 312:οὐκ ἐξ ἅπαντος δεῖ τὸ κερδαίνειν φιλεῖν” , 664:τοὐπιτάσσειν τοῖς κρατοῦσιν ἐννοεῖ” , O. C. 442:τὸ δρᾶν οὐκ ἠθέλησαν” (cited by De Jongh). So in prose with σπεύδειν, θαρρεῖν, διώκειν, and the opposite. “Full fain for this thing of babbling.”

κρύφον: A very rare substantive.

τε θέμεν: Better than τιθέμεν, which would depend awkwardly on λαλαγῆσαι.

ἐπεὶ . . . δύναιτο : ἐπεί is “whereas.” Madmen may attempt to babble down and obscure his praises, but his deeds of kindness are numberless, and cannot be effaced any more than they can be counted.

χάρματα: Echo of χαρμάτων, v. 21 (Mezger).

The third Olympian celebrates the same victory as the preceding ode. In what order the two were sung does not appear. O. 2 was probably performed in the palace of Theron; O. 3 in the Dioskureion of Akragas. The superscription and the Scholia indicate that this ode was prepared for the festival of the Θεοξένια, at which Kastor and Polydeukes entertained the gods. It is natural to assume the existence of a special house-cult of the Dioskuroi in the family of the Emmenidai, but we must not press v. 39 too hard.

The third Olympian, then, combines the epinikian ode with the theoxenian hymn. The Tyndaridai are in the foreground. It is the Tyndaridai that the poet seeks to please (v. 1) by his Ὀλυμπιονίκας ὕμνος. It is the Tyndaridai, the twin sons of Leda (v. 35), that are the ruling spirits of the Olympian contests. It is the Tyndaridai that are the givers of fame to Theron (v. 39). The victory is the same as that celebrated in the previous ode, but there Theron is always present to our minds. We are always thinking of the third member of the triad — god, hero, man. Here Theron is kept back. The poet who was there almost, if not altogether, defiant in his heralding of Theron, utters scarce a word of praise here. Before it was merit, here it is grace.

The poem is a solemn banquet-hymn. The victory calls for the fulfilment of a divine service, a θεόδματον χρέος (v. 7). Pisa is the source of θεομοροι ἀοιδαί (v. 10). The myth has the same drift. It is the story of the Finding of the Olive, the token of victory. This is no native growth. It was brought by Herakles from the sources of the Istros, a memorial of Olympic contests (v. 15). It was not won by force, but obtained by entreaty from the Hyperborean servants of Apollo (v. 16), and the hero craved it as shade for the sacred enclosure of his sire, and as a wreath for human prowess (v. 18). Already had the games been established, but the ground was bare to the keen scourgings of the sun (v. 24). Sent to Istria on another errand by Zeus, he had beheld and wondered (v. 32). Thither returning at the impulse of his heart, he asked and received, and planted the olive at Olympia (v. 34), which he still visits with the sons of Leda (v. 35).

The parallel with Herakles is revealed at the end. Theron has reached his bound — his Herakles' pillars. Beyond lies nothing. Seek no further (v. 45).

The olive was a free gift of God. So is this victory of Theron. It might be dangerous to press the details. Yet it is not unGreek to say that the beauty of life is found of those who walk in the path of duty. Theron's praise is no less because it is indirect.

The dactylo-epitrite rhythms are peculiarly appropriate in a hymn addressed to deities so Dorian in their character as the Dioskuroi. The compass of the strophe is not great, but especial stateliness is given to the composition by the massiveness of the epode. It is noteworthy that strophe and epode end with the same measure.

Of the three triads, the central one contains the heart of the Finding of the Olive. The story is begun at the close of the first triad, and finished at the beginning of the third, and thus the parts are locked together.

Strophe 1

φιλοξείνοις: The Dioskuroi were in an especial manner gods of hospitality, though an allusion to the Θεοξένια is not excluded

ἀδεῖν = ἁδεῖν, Aeolic ψίλωσις, P. 2.96.

καλλιπλοκάμῳ θ᾽ Ἑλένᾳ: κ., used of Thetis and Demeter in Homer, who is more lavish in his use of ἐυπλόκαμος. Helen is καλλίκομος, Od. 15. 58. τε . . . τε, as the brothers, so the sister. See O. 1.115. H. shares her brothers' hospitable nature. See Od. 4. 130 foll., 296 foll.

κλεινὰν Ἀκράγαντα: With P.'s leaning to the fem.

γεραίρων: “While honoring.”

εὔχομαι: A prayer and not a boast. So also P. 8.67, where αἰτέω forms a sufficient contrast.

Θήρωνος Ὀλυμπιονίκαν ὕμνον: Instead of the prosaic Ὀλυμπιονίκου ὕμνον.

ὀρθώσαις: Simply “raising,” without any sidenotion of column (O. 7.86) or statue (I. 1, 46):

ἀκαμαντοπόδων: O. 5.3: ἀκαμαντόποδος . . . ἀπήνας.

ἄωτον: Appos. to ὕμνον. Compare O. 5.1; 8, 75.

οὕτω μοι παρεστάκοι: So with Mommsen, instead of οὕτω τοι παρέστα μοι. οὕτω, as she had done before. In a wish, P. 1.46. 56. With παρεστάκοι compare P. 8.70: κώμῳ μὲν ἁδυμελεῖ | Δίκα παρέστακε.

νεοσίγαλον: “With its gloss fresh upon it.” We say, with another figure, “fire-new.” O. 9.52: ἄνθεα δ᾽ ὕμνων νεωτέρων.

τρόπον: The novelty consists in the combination of honor to God and honor to man, of theoxenia and epinikion. See the Introduction.

πεδίλῳ: The πέδιλον strikes the measure.

Antistrophe 1

ἐπεὶ . . . γεγωνεῖν: Gives the double element — the victory of Theron (ἐπινίκιον), and the right of the Tyndaridai to Pisa (Θεοξένια). Compare v. 9: τᾶς ἄπο | θεόμοροι νίσοντ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀνθρώπους ἀοιδαί, with v. 34: ἵλαος ἀντιθέοισιν νίσεται | σὺν βαθυζώνου διδύμνοις παισὶ Λήδας. The song is the refluence of the coming of Herakles and the Tyndaridai.

χαίταισι μὲν ζευχθέντες: P. prefers this warmer participial conception to the colder infinitive (τὸ) χαίταισιν ἐπιζευχθῆναι στεφάνους. See P. 2.23; 3, 102; 11, 22; N. 4.34; I. 4, 49; 7, 12. Dem. 18, 32: διὰ τούτους οὐχὶ πεισθέντας, much more vigorous than διὰ τὸ τούτους μὴ πεισθῆναι. The familiarity of these constructions in Latin deadens our perception of them in Greek, where they are very much rarer. μέν, with an answering τε, v. 9. See O. 4.13.

πράσσοντι: P. 9.111: ἐμὲ δ᾽ ὦν . . . τις πράσσει χρέος. The more familiar middle occurs O. 10.33.

θεόδματον: The last part of the compd. is felt elsewhere, O. 6.59; P. 1.61; 9, 11; though faintly in I. 5, 11: θεοδμάτους ἀρετάς. There is no echo of ὀρθώσαις.

φόρμιγγά τε . . . καὶ βοὰν αὐλῶν ἐπέων τε: τε . . . καί unites the instrumentation, τε adds the words as an essential element.

ποικιλόγαρυν: Cf. O. 4.2: ποικιλοφόρμιγγος ἀοιδᾶς.

θέσιν = ποίησιν. Etym. Magn. p. 319, 31: θέσις ποίησις παρ᾽ Ἀλκαίῳ, and p. 391, 26: Πίνδαρος θέσιν τὸ ποίημα λέγει. Sappho, fr. 36 (Bgk.): οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὄττι θέω.

Αἰνησιδάμου παιδί: In honor of Theron.

συμμῖξαι: Cf. O. 1.22.

τε Πίσα: See v. 7.

γεγωνεῖν: Supply πράσσει, which is easier, as the near neighborhood of συμμῖξαι keeps the construction wide-awake. γέγωνεν (Christ) does not give a clear sense, though the shift is in P.'s manner.

τᾶς ἄπο: O. 1.8.

θεόμοροι: “God-given,” as I. 7, 38: γάμου θεόμορον γέρας.

Epode 1

τινι = τούτῳ (in his honor), τινι. — κραίνων . . . βάλῃ: Pres., the rule; aor., the exemplification. Simple subj. in generic sentence as in Homer

ἐφετμάς: See P. 2.21.

προτέρας: “Of old,” “of yore.” O. 7.72: ἐπὶ προτέρων ἀνδρῶν.

ἀτρεκής: “Unswervable.”

Ἑλλανοδίκας: The judge of the contest, so called because Greeks alone could participate in the games. Originally the number is said to have been two, afterwards ten, according to the number of the φυλαί of the Eleians, and afterwards still further enlarged.

γλεφάρων . . . ὑψόθεν: The eyes of the victor would naturally follow the movement of the prizegiver's hand, hence ὑψόθεν.

Αἰτωλός: The Eleians were called Aitolians, after their leader, Oxylos, who accompanied, or rather guided, the Herakleidai on their return.

γλαυκόχροα: Cf. So. O. C. 701:γλαυκᾶς . . . φύλλον ἐλαίας” . The hue is grayish-green. On the symbolism of the olive, see Porphyr. de Antro Nymph. c. 33. P. does not distinguish the ἐλαία from the κότινος (wild olive).

τάν ποτε: The relative begins the myth. Cf. O. 1.25.

Ἴστρου: A half-fabulous river.

Ἀμφιτρυωνιάδας: Herakles. The mouth-filling word, well suited to the hero, occurs again, I. 5, 38. Cf. Catull. 68, 112:falsiparens Amphitryoniades.

Strophe 2

δᾶμον Ὑπερβορέων: The well-known favorites of Apollo, who lived “beyond the North,” according to P., as he brings them into contrast with the Nile (I. 5 [6], 23). Perseus' visit to the Hyperboreans is described in P. 10 (Pindar's earliest poem).

Ἀπόλλωνος θεράποντα: P. 10.34: ὧν θαλίαις ἔμπεδον | εὐφαμίαις τε μάλιστ᾽ Ἀπόλλων | χαίρει.

πείσαις . . . λόγῳ: λ. has an emphatic position. Herakles does not often stoop to plead.

πιστὰ φρονέων: “With loyal soul,” if “loyal” were antique; “true to his sire.”

αἴτει: “He had to ask.” Not αἰτεῖ, the histor. pres., which is very rare in P., and turns on P. 5.82, which see.

πανδόκῳ: Compare O. 1.93; 6, 69.

ἄλσει: “Every place consecrated to the gods is an ἄλσος, even if it be bare of trees,” says the Schol.

σκιαρόν τε φύτευμα: It had shaded the Ἴστρου παγαί, v. 14.

ξυνὸν ἀνθρώποις: The shade is common to all men, the wreaths are for the victors (Böckh). “A common boon.”

αὐτῷ: With ἀντέφλεξε. “In his face.” — διχόμηνις: “Monthhalver.” The full moon lighted the height of the festival.

ὅλον: “Full” (proleptic).

χρυσάρματος: Compare the “yellow harvest-moon.”

ἑσπέρας: “At eventide” (cf. P. 4.40), acc. to Böckh, but the moon may flash full the Eye of Even, which is herself. Still the adverbial interpretation is favored by O. 10 (11), 81: ἐν δ᾽ ἕσπερον | ἔφλεξεν εὐώπιδος | σελάνας ἐρατὸν φάος.

Antistrophe 2

ἀέθλων . . . κρίσιν: So N. 10.23, but O. 7.80: κρίσις ἀμφ᾽ ἀέθλοις.

ἁγνάν: The decision is “pure” (intemerate) as the judge is “true” (unwarped), v. 12.

ἁμᾶ (Dor.) = ἅμα here, and P. 3.36; N. 5.11, but=ὁμοῦ, N. 7.78.

θῆκε: Sc. Ἡρακλῆς. Change of subject is very common in Greek, e. g. O. 9.50; P. 4.25. 251. See also O. 1.89.

κρημνοῖς: “Bluffs,” as in Homer. P. 3.34: παρὰ Βοιβιάδος κρημνοῖς, fr. XI. 64: πὰρ κρημνὸν θαλάσσας.

οὐ καλὰ , κτἑ.: On the position of οὐ compare O. 4.17.

δένδρε᾽ ἔθαλλεν: δ. is inner object: δένδρα τεθηλότα εἶχε.

Κρονίου. Böckh combines Κρονίου Πέλοπος. This would require Κρονίδα (Herm.). Aristarchos combines χῶρος Πέλοπος, ἐν βάσσαις Κρονίου. Hence we read χῶροςἐν βάσσαις ΚρονίουΠέλοπος, which is very much in P.'s manner.

τούτων . . . γυμνός: As τῶν is used as a relative, the asyndeton is not felt with the fuller τούτων, which need not be = τούτων οὖν.

κᾶπος: So “garden” of any favored spot, P. 9.57: Διὸς ἔξοχον κᾶπον (Libya).

ὑπακουέμεν: As a slave. “To be exposed to,” “lashed by” (cf. “that fierce light which beats upon a throne”).

ὀξείαις . . . αὐγαῖς: O. 7.70: ἔχει τέ μιν ὀξειᾶν γενέθλιος ἀκτίνων πατήρ, Theogn. 425: αὐγὰς

ὀξέος ἠελίου.

πορεύειν: The Schol. makes this form here = πορεύεσθαι, but it is better to make πορεύειν transitive and ὥρμα intransitive. Bergk reads ὥρμαιν᾽.

Epode 2

ἱπποσόα: I. 4 (5), 32: ἱπποσόας Ἰόλαος. In P. 2.9 Artemis puts on the trappings when Hieron yokes his horses. Homer calls her (Il. 6. 205) χρυσήνιος.

δέξατ᾽ ἐλθόντ᾽ . . . ἀπὸ, κτἑ.: Refers to a previous visit, the memory of which was recalled by the nakedness of the κᾶπος. The circumstances of the two visits are different; the first visit (from Arcady) was under the stress of ἀνάγκα, and at the bidding of the hated Eurystheus, and the second visit (from Elis) was in faithful love (πιστὰ φρονέων), at the bidding of his own spirit.

δειρᾶν: O. 9.63: Μαιναλίαισιν ἐν δειραῖς.

ἀγγελίαις: The plural of an impressive message, also I. 7 (8), 43: ἰόντων . . . αὐτίκ᾽ ἀγγελίαι. Eurystheus sent his message to Herakles by Kopreus (Il. 15. 639), a proceeding which both Homeric and Pindaric Scholiasts ascribe to fear.

ἔντυε: As in P. 9.72: ὣς ἄρ᾽ εἰπὼν ἔντυεν τερπνὰν γάμου κραίνειν τελευτάν. The extension of ἐντ. from παρασκευάζειν to διεγείρειν (Schol.) is not Homeric.

πατρόθεν: The ἀνάγκα bound sire as well as son. The story of the oath of Zeus and the consequent subjection of Herakles to Eurystheus is told, Il. 19. 95 sqq.

χρυσόκερων . θήλειαν: Mythic does have mythic horns.

Ταϋγέτα: One of the Pleiades, daughter of Atlas, mother of Lakedaimon and Eurotas. In order to escape the pursuit of Zeus, she was changed by Artemis into a doe, and after she returned to her human form she consecrated a doe to the goddess.

ἀντιθεῖσα = ἀνατιθεῖσα (Schol.).

Ὀρθωσίᾳ: The hiatus is paralleled by O. 6.82; N. 6.24; I. 1, 16 (Bergk). — 'O. is not different from Ἄρτεμις Ὀρθία, before whose altar boys were scourged at Sparta. Both doe and scourging indicate a substitution for human sacrifice. As the capture of the doe ordinarily precedes the cleansing of the Augean stables, and so the founding of the Olympic games, v. 34 foll., see Ol. 10 (11), we have another indication that there were two visits to the land of the Hyperboreans.

ἔγραψεν: The Scholiast is good enough to give us the inscription on the doe's collar: Ταϋγέτη ἱερὰν ἀνέθηκεν Ἀρτέμιδι.

Strophe 3

πνοιᾶς ὄπιθεν Βορέα: P. comes back to the Hyperboreans with an explanatory touch. See on P. 4.29. To emphasize the distance is to emphasize Herakles' devotion to his sire. This P. has done here and in vv. 14, 26. πνοιᾶς has scarcely any MS. warrant, but πνοιαῖς can only be defended by vague analogy.

θάμβαινε = θαύμαινε, which is an inferior reading.

τῶν: Depends on ἵμερος.

δωδεκάγναμπτον: See O. 2.55.

φυτεῦσαι: Epexegetic infinitive. The place was called τὸ Πάνθειον (Schol.).

ταύταν ἑορτάν: The Theoxenia.

νίσεται: The only correct spelling, acc. to the best MSS., and borne out by G. Meyer, Gr. Gr., § 497, νι?σομαι for νι-νσ-ι-ο-μαι.

βαθυζώνου: Epithet applied to the Graces, P. 9.2; to the Muses, I. 5 (6), 74; to Latona, Fr. V. 2, 2. See P. 1.12.

Antistrophe 3

ἐπέτραπεν = ἐπέτρεψεν (Schol.).

θαητὸν ἀγῶνα νέμειν: The Dioskuroi were θεοὶ ἐναγώνιοι. N. 10.52: εὐρυχόρου ταμίαι Σπάρτας ἀγώνων.

ἀνδρῶν τ᾽ ἀρετᾶς: Especially of those games that require personal prowess. O. 1.95: ἵνα ταχυτὰς ποδῶν ἐρίζεται | ἀκμαι τ᾽ ἰσχύος θρασύπονοι, N. 9.12: ἰσχύος τ᾽ ἀνδρῶν ἁμίλλαις ἅρμασι τε γλαφυροῖς ἄμφαινε κυδαίνων πόλιν, N. 5.52: πύκταν τέ νιν καὶ παγκρατίῳ φθέγξαι ἑλεῖν Ἐπιδαύρῳ διπλόαν | νικῶντ᾽ ἀρετάν. Still charioteering was not without its dangers. See P. 6.

ῥιμφαρμάτου: So. O. C. 1062.

διφρηλασίας: As ἀφετήριοι the Dioskuroi had an altar at the starting-post of the Hippodrome (Paus. 5, 15, 5).

πὰρ θυμὸς ὀτρύνει: The πᾳ of the MSS. (= πως, Schol.) cannot be construed; with ὀτρύνει it makes no sense, and διδόντων is too far off. πάρ, Böckh (παροτρύνει), with poor and late MSS. The old Scholiasts show uneasiness.

Ἐμμενίδαις | Θήρωνί τε: Theron crowns the line. The dat. with ἐλθεῖν as often when equiv. to γενέσθαι.

ἐποίχονται: Sc. the Emmenidai. Compare what is said of Xenokrates, brother of Theron, I. 2, 39:καὶ θεῶν δαῖτας προσέπτυκτο πάσας.

Epode 3

τελετάς = τὰς ἑορτάς (Schol.).

εἰ δ᾽ ἀριστεύει , κτἑ.: “If” (which no one will deny). A familiar sentiment, such as the Greeks did not hesitate to repeat on occasion. See O. 1.1.

νῦν δέ: The reading νῦν γε is at first sight more natural, but νῦν δέ has the better warrant “Now in his turn.” This comes near an apodotic δέ.

ἐσχατιάν: Of one that casts anchor. I. 5 (6), 12: ἐσχατιὰς ἤδη πρὸς ὄλβου | βάλλετ᾽ ἄγκυραν θεότιμος ἐών.

ἀρεταῖσιν: “By his deeds of emprise.”

οἴκοθεν: Variously interpreted. As οἴκοθεν οἴκαδε is proverbial for ease and comfort of transmission and transition (O. 6.99; 7, 4), so the omission of οἴκαδε shows difficulty, trouble, arduous effort. Compare I. 3 (4), 30: ἀνορέαισιν δ᾽ ἐσχάταισιν οἴκοθεν στάλαισιν ἅπτονθ᾽ Ἡρακλειαις. The effect is “the far distant pillars of Herakles.”

Ἡρακλέος σταλᾶν: Proverbs weary less by repetition than original figures.

οὔ νιν διώξω: νιν = τὸ πόρσω. Neither οὐ μάν nor οὐ μή is Pindaric. Suavius dicit de se quae Theroni dicere vult (Dissen).

κεινὸς εἴην: “Set me down an empty fool” (if I do). There is no omission of ἄν. Compare Lys. 21, 21:μαινοίμην δοκοίην μαίνεσθαι, εἰ ἀναλίσκοιμι” .

Kamarina was founded by the Syracusans, 599 B.C., one hundred and thirty-five years after Syracuse itself. Destroyed by Syracuse in consequence of a revolt, it was some time afterwards restored by Hippokrates. Again stripped of its inhabitants by Gelon, it was rebuilt once more by men of Gela, Ol. 79, 4 (461 B.C.). The proverb μὴ κίνει Καμάριναν: ἀκίνητος γὰρ ἀμείνων is supposed to refer to the unhealthy situation of the city, but Lobeck reads καμάριναν, cloacam.

Of Psaumis we know absolutely nothing, except what Pindar is pleased to tell us in this ode and the next. Both odes are supposed to refer to the same victory, ἀπήνῃ, that is, with a mule chariot. The MSS. have in the superscription ἅρματι or ἵπποις: ἀπήνῃ is due to Böckh's combinations. This gives us a terminus. The mule-race was done away with, Ol. 84 (444 B.C.). Böckh puts Psaumis's victory Ol. 82 (452 B.C.), and maintains that the victor had failed in the four-horse chariot race, and in the race with the single horse (κέλητι). The ἀπήνῃ victory then was a consolation, and there seems to be a note of disappointment in the rhythm.

According to Böckh the ode was sung in Olympia; according to Leopold Schmidt in Kamarina. The latter view seems to be the more probable. The fourth ode was sung in the festal procession, the fifth, the genuineness of which has been disputed, at the banquet.

The key of this brief poem is given, v. 16: διάπειρά τοι βροτῶν ἔλεγχος. The final test is the true test. Success may be slow in coming, but when it comes it reveals the man. The thunderchariot of Zeus is an unwearied chariot. What though his Horai revolve and revolve ere they bring the witness of the lofty contest? Good fortune dawns, and then comes gratulation forthwith. The light comes late, but it is a light that shines from the chariot of a man who hastens to bring glory to Kamarina. Well may we pray, “God speed his other wishes.” Well may we praise the man — liberal, hospitable, pure-souled, lover of peace, lover of his state. No falsehood shall stain this record of a noble life. The final trial is the test of mortals.

So, by trial, Erginos, the Argonaut, was saved from the reproach of the Lemnian women. Unsuccessful before, he won the race in armor, and said to Hypsipyle as he went after the crown: “This is what I am in swiftness. My hands and heart fully match my feet. The race is for the young, but I am younger than my seeming. Gray hairs grow often on young men before the time. The final trial is the test of mortals.”

Psaumis had every virtue but success; now this is added. So Erginos was a man of might, of courage; now he has shown his speed.

The logaoedic rhythms are handled so as to produce a peculiar effect. Prolongation is frequent (3 for -u), and the result is a half-querulous, half-mocking tone. The lively Aiolian mood is tempered by the plaintive Lydian. Psaumis is only half satisfied, after all, and his enemies are not wholly confounded.

The triad distributes itself fairly into prayer, praise, and story.


ἐλατὴρ ὑπέρτατε βροντᾶς ἀκαμαντόποδος Ζεῦ: Plat. Phaidr. 246 E: μὲν δὴ μέγας ἡγεμὼν ἐν οὐρανῷ Ζεὺς πτηνὸν ἅρμα ἐλαύνων πρῶτος πορεύεται” , which πτηνὸν ἅρμα becomes a stock quotation in later Greek. Compare

per purum tonantes
egit equos volucremque currum.

ἀκαμαντόποδος: O. 3.3; 5, 3.

τεαὶ γὰρ ὧραι: γάρ gives the reason of the invocation. The Horai, originally but two, Καρπώ and Θαλλώ (Paus. 9, 35, 2), are the daughters of Zeus and Themis; they who in their steady course — Ὧραι being from √ja, “go” — bring things at their season. It has taken time for Psaumis's success to ripen.

ὑπὸ . . . ἀοιδᾶς: Compare O. 7.13: ὑπ᾽ ἀμφοτέρων (φόρμιγγος καὶ αὐλῶν) κατέβαν.

ποικιλοφόρμιγγος: Cf. O. 3.8: φόρμιγγα ποικιλόγαρυν, N. 4.14: ποικίλον κιθαρίζων.

ἑλισσόμεναι: “In their circling dance.”

ἔπεμψαν . . . μάρτυρα: It is deplorable literalism to suppose that P. actually went and bore witness to the contests. See N. 1.19: ἔσταν δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ αὐλείαις θύραις. The poet is said to go whithersoever his song goes. Compare N. 5.3: στεῖχ᾽ ἀπ᾽ Αἰγίνας, διαγγέλλοισ᾽ ὅτι, κτἑ.; also I. 2, 46.

μάρτυρα = ὑμνητήν (Schol.).

ξείνων . . . εὖ πρασσόντων, κτἑ.: The only possible meaning for ξείνων forces us to take ἔσαναν in a good sense, which is otherwise strange to P. See P. 1.52; 2, 82. The figure was not so coarse to the Greek as it is to us. So. O. C. 320:φαιδρὰ γοῦν ἀπ᾽ ὀμμάτων σαίνει με προσστείχουσα” . We can hardly make poetry of Horace's “leniter atterens caudam.ξείνων refers to Psaumis and ἐσλοί to Pindar. “When friends fare well, forthwith the heart of the noble leaps up to greet the sweet tidings.” Some make the passage ironical.

ἀλλ᾽ Κρόνου παῖ: Resumption of the address. Cf. O. 8, init.: Μᾶτερ . . . Οὐλυμπία . . . ἀλλ᾽ Πίσας.

Αἴτναν . . . ὀβρίμου gives the repressive, as ἐλατὴρ . . . Ζεῦ the aggressive, side of Zeus's power. Compare also O. 6.96: Ζηνὸς Αἰτναίου κράτος.

ἶπον: A trivial word (almost = “dead - fall”), ennobled like “canopy” (κωνωπεῖον).

ἀνεμόεσσαν: Od. 9. 400: ἄκριας ἠνεμοέσσας.

Τυφῶνος: P. 1.16.

Οὐλυμπιονίκαν . . . κῶμον: O. 3.3: Ὀλυμπιονίκαν ὕμνον.

Χαρίτων: N. 6.42: Χαρίτων | ἑσπέριος ὁμάδῳ φλέγεν, and 9, 54: εὔχομαι ταύταν ἀρετὰν κελαδῆσαι σὺν Χαρίτεσσιν. The fourth of the βωμοὶ ἕξ δίδυμοι, O. 5.5, was dedicated to Χάριτες καὶ Διόνυσος. Compare O. 2.55, and remember also the enmity between Typhon (θεῶν πολέμιος, P. 1.15) and the Graces.


χρονιώτατον: The Horai have not hastened. Hence χ., “late” with Mezger, not “lasting.”

Ψαύμιος . . . ὀχέων: It is not necessary to supply ὤν nor to make ὀχέων the ablatival genitive ἵκει is only an ἐστί in motion. “'Tis Psaumis's that has come, his chariot's” (revel song of victory). ὀχ. prevalently of an ἀπήνη (Schol., O. 6.24).

σπεύδει: Psaumis's own eagerness is brought into contrast with the deliberateness of the Horai.

λοιπαῖς εὐχαῖς: A mild personification after the Homeric Λιταί, Il. 9. 502.

μὲν . . . τε: μὲν . . . δέ balances, τε . . . τε parallels, μὲν . . . τε shifts from balance to parallel. Cf. O. 3.6; 6, 88; 7, 12. 69; P. 2.31; 4, 249; 6, 39 al. Notice the triple praise in two groups: I. τροφαῖς ἑτοῖμον ἵππων, and II. (1) ξενίαις πανδόκοις, (2) Ἡσυχίαν φιλόπολιν.

Ἡσυχίαν φιλόπολιν: High praise in the disturbed state of Sicily. Personify with Bergk.

οὐ ψεύδεϊ τέγξω: N. 1.18: οὐ ψεύδει βαλών. For other eccentric positions of the negative, see O. 1.81; 2, 34. 69. 106; 3, 23; 7, 48; 8, 79. Here it amounts to, “I will not lie-dye my word.” Cf. also P. 4.99: ἐχθίστοισι μὴ ψεύδεσιν | καταμιάναις εἰπὲ γένναν.

διάπειρά τοι βροτῶν ἔλεγχος: Cf. N. 3.71: ἐν δὲ πείρᾳ τέλος | διαφαίνεται. δια- is “final,” “decisive.”


Κλυμένοιο παῖδα: Erginos, the Argonaut, son of Klymenos (acc. to Apollodoros, 1, 9, 16, 8, son of Poseidon), was ridiculed by the Lemnian women (P. 4.252), on account of his white hair, when he undertook the weapon-race in the funeral games held by Hypsipyle in honor of her father, Thoas. His victory over Zetes and Kalaïs, the swift sons of Boreas, gave the mockers a lesson, not to judge by appearance, but to judge righteous judgment (after the Schol.). According to Pausanias, 9, 37, 4, Erginos, son of Klymenos, late in life consulted the oracle as to the propriety of marriage with a view to offspring, and received the answer: Ἐργῖνε Κλυμένοιο πάι Πρεσβωνιάδαο, | ὄψ᾽ ἦλθες γενεὴν διζήμενος ἀλλ᾽ ἔτι καὶ νῦν | ἱστοβοῆι γέροντι νέην ποτίβαλλε κορώνην. The sequel showed that his natural force was not abated, and this gives point to Erginos's reply to the taunt of the Lemnian women.

ἔλυσεν ἐξ ἀτιμίας: Concrete power of the preposition. So I. 7 (8), 6: ἐκ πενθέων λυθέντες. λ. without a preposition in P. 3.50: λύσαις . . . ἀχέων, where, however, ἔξαγεν is sufficiently plastic.

χαλκέοισι δ᾽ ἐν ἔντεσιν: Compare P. 9, init.: A game usu. at funerals.

νικῶν δρόμον: O. 13.30.

Ὑψιπυλείᾳ: See Ovid's Heroides VI. and Chaucer's Legend of Good Women.

στέφανον: The prize was raiment (ϝεσθᾶτος ἀμφίς, P. 4.253). The wreath was given besides, I. 1, 18 foll.

Οὗτος: Tauntingly: “You see.” Kayser, Rauchenstein, and others punctuate οὗτος ἐγώ: ταχυτᾶτι χεῖρες δὲ καὶ ἦτορ ἴσον, the position of δέ as O. 10 (11), 76. 109; P. 4.228. But we should lose dramatic power by this. Erginos is slightly out of breath.

χεῖρες: The hands and feet show the first symptoms of age, Hesiod, O. et D. 114. The feet give way before the hands. Notice the scene between Euryalos and Odysseus in Od. 8. 147 foll., and especially where Odysseus shows some concern about his running. For jubilant assertion of the power of old age in boxing (χεῖρες), see Aristoph. Vesp. 1383. If the feet are all right, then the rest follows a fortiori.

ἴσον: “Are a match” (to say the least).

φύονται: Erginos is still speaking.

πολιαί: An allusion to the gray hairs of Psaumis, who is supposed to have been an ὠμογέρων, if a γέρων at all, is an unnecessary hypothesis of the mechanical order.

The victory celebrated here is the same as that of the preceding ode.

The verse about which the poem revolves is v. 15: αἰεὶ δ᾽ ἀμφ᾽ ἀρεταῖσι πόνος δαπάνα τε μάρναται πρὸς ἔργον | κινδύνῳ κεκαλυμμένον. The preceding poem dwells on the importance of the final trial (4, 16); this gives the conditions of success, πόνος δαπάνα τε. The wain must be untiring (v. 3), the sacrifices great and various (v. 6). To gain an Olympian victory, to found a new city, costs toil and money. The flower of victory is sweet (ἄωτος γλυκύς), the abode of Pelops lovely (εὐηρατοι σταθμοί), now that the work is over, the price paid. So the daughter of Okeanos, Kamarina, who is to greet the victor with laughing heart (v. 2), was builded with much toil, much cost. The stately canals, the grove of houses — these, like ἀπήνη, like βουθυσίαι, were not made for naught. May blessings rest on city and on Olympian victor! May the one have the adornment of the noble deeds of her sons, the other a happy old age, with his sons clustering about him! πόνος δαπάνα τε have brought their reward. Wealth sufficient remains. Add fame. What more? Let him not seek to become a god.

There is no myth. The founding of Kamarina is fairy-tale, is magic achievement, enough.

This poem, short as it is, has given rise to much discussion. The Breslau Scholiast (A) tells us that it was not in the ἐδάφια (original texts), but it was considered Pindar's from the time of Didymos on. In O. 2 and 3 we have two poems on one and the same victory, but the treatment is very different, as we have seen. P. 4 and 5 celebrate the same success, but different sides are turned out. Here, too, it might be said that O. 4 dwells on the achievement, O. 5 on the conditions; and O. 5 shows a more intimate acquaintance with local circumstances than O. 4 does. But this makes it only the harder to understand the resemblance in diction. With ὑψηλᾶν ἀρετᾶν (5, 1) compare ὑψηλοτάτων ἀέθλων (4, 3); with ἄωτον γλυκύν (5, 1), ἀγγελίαν γλυκεῖαν (4, 4); with ἀκαμαντόποδος ἀπήνας (5, 3), βροντᾶς ἀκαμαντόποδος (4, 1). δέκευ occurs 4, 8, and 5, 3; κῦδος ἀνέθηκε is found 5, 7; κῦδος ὄρσαι, 4, 11; ἵκων, 5, 9; ἵκει, 4, 10; and if the more common interpretation of 4, 4 be accepted, ἔσαναν αὐτίκ᾽ ἀγγελίαν ποτὶ γλυκεῖαν ἐσλοί, it is echoed by 5, 16: ἠὺ δ᾽ ἔχοντες σοφοὶ καὶ πολίταις ἔδοξαν ἔμμεν: if not, 5, 16 is a sarcastic comment. γῆρας (5, 22) is a reflex of πολιαί (4, 26). It is also well to remember the very narrow limits within which these resemblances, some of them in themselves trifling, are crowded, and Pindar's disinclination to repeat himself. In all P. δέκευ occurs but four times, ἀκαμαντόπους three times, forms of ἵκω seven. The chances of an accidental coincidence are remote. The poet must have had his own ode in mind, or another — perhaps Pindar's local representative, another Aineas (O. 6.88) — must have imitated his manner. Add the point adduced above, the evidence of a more intimate acquaintance with local circumstances.

Much of the other detail is hyper-Pindaric. καρδίᾳ γελανεῖ, v. 2, seems to be modelled, and not very happily modelled, on P. 4.181, θυμῷ γελανεῖ, and ἀκαμαντόποδος ἀπήνας, v. 3, on O. 3.3, ἀκαμαντοπόδων ἵππων. ὑψηλᾶν ἀρετᾶν, v. 1, is matched by I. 4 (5), 45, ὑψηλαῖς ἀρεταῖς, πόλιν λαοτρόφον, v. 4, by O. 6.60, λαοτρόφον τιμάν. κῦδος ἁβρόν, v. 7, is found I. 1, 50; σεμνὸν ἄντρον, v. 18, is found P. 9.32. On the other hand, ἄωτος is ὀρθόπολις, O. 2.8; ἐπίνικος, O. 8.75; ἱερός, P. 4.131; κάλλιστος, N. 2.9; ἄλπνιστος, I. 4 (5), 12; ἄκρος, I. 6 (7), 18, never γλυκύς except here. Mezger has called attention to the resemblance between this ode and the beginning and the end of the fifth Isthmian; and we can hardly resist the impression that we have before us a clever copy of Pindar's manner.

But if it is a copy of Pindar, the copy is faithful to Pindaric symmetry. Of the three triads, the first has for its main theme the victory of Olympia, the second the founding of Kamarina, the third contains a prayer for well-earned enjoyment of the glory gained abroad as well as at home. The three triads have been compared to the three κρατῆρες of the symposium, at which the ode was sung.

The metres, logaoedic acc. to J. H. H. Schmidt, are often called dactylo-ithyphallic, not elsewhere found in P. Moriz Schmidt insists on the strong resemblance between the movement of O. 4 and of O. 5, in opposition to Böckh, who says: “A ceteris Pindari carminibus mirum quantum distans.” Von Leutsch emphasizes the brief compass of the strophes and epodes, the simplicity of the verse, the peculiarity of the sequence, all indicating the Lesbian style of composition. According to him the poem is too light, and has too little art, for Pindar.

If we had a wider range of Pindaric poems, we might obelize with more certainty. To me the poem is exceedingly suspicious.

Strophe 1

ἄωτον: “The prime.” See O. 2.8.

Ὠκεανοῦ θύγατερ: The nymph of the lake, Kamarina, from which the city received its name.

γελανεῖ: P. 4.181: θυμῷ γελανεῖ.

Antistrophe 1

αὔξων: P. 8.38: αὔξων πάτραν.

λαοτρόφον: With reference to the rapid growth of the restored Kamarina.

βωμοὺς ἓξ διδύμους: According to Herodoros, Herakles built six altars to twelve deities, and the pairs of σύμβωμοι are these: 1. Zeus and Poseidon; 2. Hera and Athena; 3. Hermes and Apollo; 4. Charites and Dionysos; 5. Artemis and Alpheios; 6. Kronos and Rhea.

ἐγέραιρεν: More natural than ἐγέραρεν, on account of αὔξων: “Strove to honor.”

ὑπὸ βουθυσίαις: Compare I. 5 (6), 44: εὐχαῖς ὑπὸ θεσπεσίαις | λίσσομαι. β. denotes the height of liberality, and sorts with αὔξων. Do not extend ὑπό to ἁμίλλαις.

πεμπταμέροις: This is the reading of the best MSS. Hermann thinks that the contests were held on the fifth day. Fennell considers πεμπταμέροις a formation analogous to ἑβδομήκοντα, ὀγδοήκοντα, and so equivalent to πεμπαμέροις, “lasting five days,” which many editors have.

Epode 1

ἵπποις ἡμιόνοις τε μοναμπυκίᾳ τε: The various games in which he strove to honor (ἐγέραιρε) the city. He succeeded only in the mule-race (ἀπήνη). The controversy about this passage is endless.

μοναμπυκίᾳ: “And with the riding of single horse.” The μονάμπυξ was a κέλης. “Sole-frontleted” for “single,” like οἰόζωνος ἀνήρ. See commentators on So. O. C. 718:τῶν ἑκατομπόδων Νηρῄδων ἀκόλουθος” .

νικάσαις ἀνέθηκε: The success is in the aor., the effort (v. 5) in the imperf.

ἐκάρυξε: Causative.

νέοικον: See Introduction to O. 4.

Strophe 2

Οἰνομάου καὶ Πέλοπος: See O. 1.24 foll. P. does not couple closely the luckless king and his fortunate successor.

σταθμω_ν: “Abode.’ So O. 10(11), 101; P. 4.76; I. 6(7), 45.

Παλλάς: Brought from Lindos in Rhodes to Gela, from Gela to Kamarina.

ἀείδει μὲν ... ποταμόν τε: See O. 4.13.

Ὤανιν: K. lay on a hill, eighty feet high, between the mouth of the Oanis (Frascolaro) and the mouth of the Hipparis (Camarana), at the eastern end of the great bay, the innermost point of which is occupied by Gela (Holm). Ὤανις bears a suspicious resemblance to Ὠάννης, an Oriental fish-god, germane to Dagon. τε Ὤανιν points to ϝώανις. See Curtius, Gr. Et.^{4}, p. 561.

ἐγχωρίαν: Not otiose. Kamarina gets its name from the lake of the land.

Antistrophe 2

σεμνοὺς ὀχετούς: “Stately canals” (Am. Journ. of Phil. VII. p. 407). Others “sacred” because of the river.

στρατόν: Doric use of the word “host” for “folk.”

κολλᾷ: The commentators are divided as to the subject; part take Ἵππαρις, part Ψαῦμις. Assuming, as we may, that Psaumis had done much to improve the navigation of the river, the praise is more delicate if we make the river the agent of all this good, and put, instead of the benefactor, the benefaction. “The river doth build with speed a lofty forest of stedfast dwellings” (Myers). The canal enables the builders to float down wood rapidly for the new houses. Fennell transl. κολλᾷ, “makes into rafts.”

ὑψίγυιον ἄλσος: As it were, “a forest of tall houses.”

ὑπ᾽ ἀμαχανίας: Livelier than the other reading, ἀπ᾽. See O. 6.43, and N. 1.35: σπλάγχνων ὕπο ματέρος θαητὰν ἐς αἴγλαν μολών.

ἐς φάος: To light and life.

Epode 2

ἀμφ᾽ ἀρεταῖσι: N. 5.47: ἐσλοῖσι μάρναται πέρι πᾶσα πόλις.

πόνος δαπάνα τε: I. 1, 42: ἀμφότερον δαπάναις τε καὶ πόνοις.

μάρναται: The singular number of a welded pair.

πρὸς ἔργον: “With victory in view, veiled though it be with risk.” The chariot-race was a risk to person as well as to property. See P. 5.49.

ἠὺ δ᾽ ἔχοντες: The successful are the wise — an old sneer. So Eurip.: τὸν εὐτυχοῦντα καὶ φρονεῖν νομίζομεν.

καὶ πολίταις: Who are the last to recognize merit in a fellow-citizen. P. 11.28: κακολόγοι δὲ πολῖται.

Strophe 3

Σωτήρ: Kamarina was a redeemed city. The voc. σῶτερ is post-Homeric.

ϝιδαῖον: According to Demetrios of Skepsis this Idaian cave was at Olympia. If so, it was doubtless named after the great Ida in Crete. There were many Cretans among the original founders of Kamarina.

Λυδίοις ἀπύων ἐν αὐλοῖς: The Lydian flute melody was used in supplications. On ἐν, see O. 7.12: παμφώνοισι ... ἐν ἔντεσιν αὐλῶν.

Antistrophe 3

εὐανορίαισι: “With hosts of noble men.”

Ὀλυμπιόνικε: The victor is apostrophized, as often, at the close of the poem.

Ποσειδανίαισιν ἵπποις: Cf. O. 1.77; 8, 49.

εὔθυμον: P.'s usage would lead us to combine εὔθυμον with τελευτάν, but this is an exceptional poem, and we may follow the Schol., who combines it with γῆρας. See O. 1.37; P. 8.88.

Epode 3

παρισταμένων: Cf. Od. 12. 43: τῷ δ᾽ οὔ τι γυνὴ καὶ νήπια τέκνα | οἴκαδε νοστήσαντι παρίσταται οὐδὲ

γάνυνται. — ὑγίεντα = ὑγιᾶ. Proleptic.

ἐξαρκέων: Cf. N. 1.31: οὐκ ἔραμαι πολὺν ἐν μεγάρῳ πλοῦτον κατακρύψαις ἔχειν ἀλλ᾽ ἐόντων εὖ τε παθεῖν καὶ ἀκοῦσαι φίλοις ἐξαρκέων. That prosperity is sound which streams in and out, helping others and gaining good report. Whoso hath this, and Psaumis hath it, let him not seek to become a god.

μὴ ματεύσῃ θεὸς γενέσθαι: So I. 4 (5), 14: μὴ μάτευε Ζεὺς γενέσθαι. An abrupt end, like O. 3.

Agesias, son of Sostratos, was a Syracusan of the noble family of the Iamidai, descendants of Iamos, son of Apollo. The Iamidai were hereditary prophets among the Dorians, hereditary diviners at the great altar of Zeus in Olympia. Early settlers of Italy and Sicily, they retained their connection with Arkadia. Our Agesias, a citizen of Syracuse, was also a citizen of Stymphalos. As a Syracusan he was an active partisan of Hieron, and after the fall of the tyrannis was put to death by the Syracusans.

The composition of the ode cannot be earlier than Ol. 76, 1 (476 B.C.), nor later than Ol. 78, 1 (468 B.C.), the earliest and the latest Olympian celebrations that fall within the reign of Hieron. Ol. 77 (472 B.C.) is excluded, because Pindar was at that time in Sicily, and the poem was composed in Greece. Ol. 78, 1 is the date to which the ode is assigned by Böckh. Ζεὺς Αἰτναῖος (v. 96) would seem more appropriate after the founding of Aitna (Ol. 76). The arguments advanced by Leop. Schmidt in support of the same date, such as the character of vv. 58-63, which he regards as a feeble reflection of O. 1.71-85, and the confidential tone in which Hieron is spoken of at the close, do not seem to be cogent.

The ode was probably sung at Stymphalos and repeated at Syracuse. One Aineas brought the poem from Thebes to Stymphalos, and directed the performance. We do not know whether he was an assistant of Pindar's or a local poet of the Iamid stock.

The verses to which one always comes back in thinking over this poem are these (100, 101): ἀγαθαὶ δὲ πέλοντ᾽ ἐν χειμερίᾳ | νυκτὶ θοᾶς ἐκ ναὸς ἀπεσκίμφθαι δύ᾽ ἄγκυραι. In the second Olympian we have noticed a recurrent three; here there is clearly a recurrent two. Agesias, the hero of the poem, unites in his person Syracusan and Stymphalian. At Olympia he is victor in the games and steward of an oracle (vv. 4, 5). At Syracuse he is συνοικιστής of the city and beloved of the citizens (vv. 6, 7). He is prince and prophet, as Amphiaraos (v. 13) was warrior and prophet, and his victory must be celebrated at Pitana (v. 28), as it must be celebrated at Syracuse (v. 99). His charioteer, Phintis (v. 22), must speed to the banks of the Eurotas, and Pindar's leader, Aineas (v. 88), must conduct the festal song. Agesias's maternal stock was Arkadian; from thence came his prophetic blood — from Euadne, daughter of Poseidon (v. 29), a prophetic god; from Iamos (v. 43), whom Euadne bore to Apollo, a prophetic god.

The myth of Iamos (vv. 29-70) shows the value of this double help — the result, a double treasure of prophecy. Prosperity and fame attend the Iamidai. Herakles helped Iamos at Olympia (v. 68); Hermes the Iamidai in Arkadia (v. 79). Thebes and Stymphalos are akin (v. 86), as Herakles, Boeotian hero, and Hermes, Arkadian god, unite to bless the Iamidai. So the song must praise Hera (v. 88), for Arkadia was the home of her virginity, and vindicate Boeotia, home of Herakles (v. 90); must remember Syracuse, and wish the victor a happy reception in one home as he comes from another home — as he comes from Arkadia to Syracuse (v. 99). He has two homes in joy — two anchors in storm. God bless this and that (τῶνδε κείνων τε κλυτὰν αἶσαν παρέχοι φιλέων, v. 102). Nor is the mention of the two anchors idle. May Amphitrite's lord speed Agesias's ship, and prosper the poet's song (v. 104).

This is one of the most magnificent of Pindar's poems, full of color, if not so dazzling as the seventh Olympian. The myth of Iamos, the μάντις ancestor of a μάντις, is beautifully told. Profound moral there is none to me discernible. “He that hath gods on either side of his ancestry shall have the gods to right and left, of him for aye,” shows an aristocratic belief in blood (οὐδέ ποτ᾽ ἐκλείψειν γενεάν, v. 51).

There is such a ganglion of personal and tribal relations involved in this piece that one is tempted to long historical and antiquarian disquisitions; but if we accept Pindar's statement as to the connection between Thebes and Arkadia, nothing more is necessary to the enjoyment of the ode.

The rhythm is Doric (dactylo-epitrite).

Of the five triads, the first contains a glorification of the victor, who is compared to Amphiaraos, also a prince and a prophet; the second takes us to Arkadia, and begins the story of Iamos, which is continued in the third and the fourth. The latter half of the fourth prepares the return to Syracuse, which forms the conclusion of the poem.

Strophe 1

χρυσέας: “Golden” for “gilded.”

ὑποστάσαντες: O. 8.26: ὑπέστασε ... κίονα δαιμονίαν.

θαλάμου: “House,” as O. 5.13.

ὡς ὅτε: Without a verb, as P. 11.40; N. 9.16; I. 5 (6), 1. With ὡς ὅτε the verb is in the ind., and not in the Homeric subj. (N. 8.40); therefore supply πάγνυμεν, if anything. The ellipsis was hardly felt.

πάξομεν: On the mood, see O. 2.2.

ἀρχομένου δ᾽ ἔργου, κτἑ.: A favorite quotation in modern as in ancient times. The genitive absolute, though not “pawing to get free,” is not used with perfect freedom in P. Hence . . is felt to depend on πρόσωπον.

εἰ δ᾽ εἴη, κτἑ.: The ideal conditional (O. 1.108) of a fair dream, too fair to come to pass, and yet it has come to pass. εἴη has no subject, no τις, as might be expected. So N. 9.46.

μὲν ... τε: See O. 4.13.

βωμῷ ... μαντείῳ ταμίας: The dative often varies with the genitive so as to produce a chiastic or cross-wise stress, thus emphasizing each element alternately. Here the stress is on ταμίας, while in συνοικιστὴρ τᾶν κλεινᾶν Συρακοσσᾶν it is on Συρακοσσᾶν. Compare Hdt. 7, 5:ἦν Ξέρξῃ μὲν ἀν εψιός, Δαρείου δ ἀδελφεῆς παῖς” . Cf. Isai. 3, 13:ἑταίρα ἦν τῷ βουλομένῳ καὶ οὐ γυνὴ τοῦ ἡμετέρου θείου” . Cf.

νῦν δ᾽ ἐπειδὴ στερρὸν ἤδη τοὐμὸν ἀντικνήμιον
καὶ παλαιῷ Λακρατίδῃ τὸ σκέλος βαρύνεται.

μαντείῳ = μαντικῷ.

ταμίας = διοικητής (Schol.). The Iamidai had the right of divining by fire.

συνοικιστήρ: Of course only by hereditary right.

ἐπικύρσαις: Not with ἐν ἱμερταῖς ἀοιδαῖς, but with ἀφθόνων ἀστῶν. Cf. v. 74. Citizens are apt to show envy in such circumstances. Those who count three columns in the πρόθυρον forget Pindar's implicit way. There are four. A. is an Olympian victor, a ταμίας Διός, a συνοικιστήρ of Syracuse, and beloved of his people. The outside columns are personal, the inside are hereditary.

ἀστῶν: Both Stymphalians and Syracusans.

Antistrophe 1

ἴστω ... ἔχων: N. 9.45: ἴστω λαχών.

πεδίλῳ: O. 3.5.

δαιμόνιον πόδ᾽ ἔχων: Cf. Aisch. Ag. 907:τὸν σὸν πόδ᾽, ὦναξ, Ἰλίου πορθήτορα” . The Greeks drew largely on foot and footgear for their imagery, and yet Aristoph. laughs at χρόνου πόδα (Ran. 100). δ., “blessed of heaven.”

Σωστράτου υἱός: Effective suspense.

ἀκίνδυνοι ... ἀρ.: On the risk of the chariotrace, see So. El. 745 sqq.; also O. 5.16; P. 5.49, and Introd. to P. 6.

παρ᾽ ἀνδράσιν: “On land.” Hymn. Apoll. 142: νήσους τε καὶ ἀνέρας. N. 5.9: Αἴγιναν, τάν ποτ᾽ εὔανδρόν τε καὶ ναυσικλυτὰν θέσσαντο.

εἴ τι ποναθῇ: The position throws this clause up in opposition to ἀκίνδυνοι. The generic conditional in P. takes the pres. indic. (rarely pres. subj.) or the aor. subj.: ἐάν (ἤν, εἴ κε) does not occur. For the thought, see O. 11 (10), 4.

Ἀγησία, τὶν δέ: Cf. O. 1.36. τίν = σοί.

ἑτοῖμος: Cf. P. 6.7: ἑτοῖμος ὕμνων θησαυρός.

ἀπὸ γλώσσας: He flung it off — “roundly,” “freely.”

Ἄδραστος: Leader of the Argive host that came to help Polyneikes to his rights, P. 8.51, and elsewhere.

Ἀμφιάρηον: Amphiaraos, noblest of the seven against Thebes. N. 9.24: δ᾽ Ἀμφιάρῃ σχίσσεν κεραυνῷ παμβίᾳ | Ζεὺς τὰν βαθύστερνον χθόνα, κρύψεν δ᾽ ἅμ᾽ ἵπποις. N. 10.8: γαῖα δ᾽ ἐν Θήβαις ὑπέδεκτο κεραυνωθεῖσα Διὸς βέλεσιν.

κατά: With ἔμαρψεν.

φαιδίμας ἵππους: White, acc. to Philostr. Imagg. 1, 27. On the gender, see P. 2.8.

Epode 1

ἑπτὰ ... τελεσθέντων: The MS. τελεσθέντων is understood now as “consumed,” now as “composed” in the sense of Lat. compositus. “The corpses of seven pyres,” one pyre for each contingent, not for each leader, as Adrastos escaped death, Amphiaraos disappeared, Polyneikes was buried by his sister. Of the many conjectures, van Herwerden's τε δαισθέντων is the most convincing. Cf. N. 9.25: ἑπτὰ γὰρ δαίσαντο πυραὶ νεογυίους φῶτας, and Eur. Herakl. 914:πυρὸς φλογὶ σῶμα δαισθείς.ἐδεσθέντων is one of Bergk's experiments. Christ's text has ἐτασθέντων. The Scholiasts seem to have had before them τε λεχθέντων (so says Moriz Schmidt also), which they understand now as “counted” (καταριθμηθέντων), cf. Il. 3. 188: μετὰ τοῖσιν ἐλέχθην — now as συλλεχθέντων = συλλεγέντων — cf. Ar. Lys. 526; Plat. Legg. 6, 784 A. The former is the more likely. Bergk: τε νησθέντων, from νέω, “pile up.”

Ταλαϊονίδας: Mouth-filling patronymic for Ταλαΐδας (Adrastos). Compare ὑπεριονίδης for ὑπερίῳν (Od. 12. 176), Ἰαπετιονίδης for Ἰαπετίδης (Hesiod, O. et D. 54).

ὀφθαλμόν: O. 2.11.

ἀμφότερον: A clear Homeric reminiscence. Cf. Il. 3. 179: ἀμφότερον βασιλεύς τ᾽ ἀγαθὸς κρατερός τ᾽ αἰχμητής.

ἀνδρὶ κώμου δεσπότᾳ ... Συρακοσίῳ: The Schol. combines . Σ. and κ. δ., and this must stand despite the affinity of ἀνδρὶ for δεσπότᾳ.

φιλόνεικος: Bergk writes φιλόνικος from νίκη, as he thinks with Cobet, N. L. 691, that νεῖκος would require φιλονεικής. The passage is referred to by Isokr. 1, 31: ὁμιλητικὸς δ᾽ ἔσει μὴ δύσερις ὢν μηδὲ δυσάρεστος μηδὲ πρὸς πάντας φιλόνικος (so the Urbinas).

μέγαν ὅρκον ὀμόσσαις: P. is a challenging herald. O. 2.101: αὐδάσομαι ἐνόρκιον λόγον ἀλαθεῖ νόῳ.

μελίφθογγοι: So I. 2, 7: μελιφθόγγου Τερψιχόρας.

ἐπιτρέψοντι = συμφωνήσουσιν (Gloss), “will approve,” “shall not say me nay” (E. Myers).

Strophe 2

Φίντις = Φίλτις. A Sicilian-Doric name. Compare Phintias in the story of Damon and Phintias (falsely Pythias).

ἀλλά: With imper., as O. 1.17 and often.

ζεῦξον: P. harnesses his poetic chariot only on grand occasions. O. 9.87; P. 10.65; I. 2, 2; 7 (8), 62.

ἤδη: “Straight.”

σθένος ἡμιόνων: Compare P. 2.12: σθένος ἵππειον. σθ. is not limited by P. to animals, Fr. II. 1, 4: σθένος Ἡρακλέος. Homer has Il. 13. 248: ς. Ἰδομενῆος, and 18, 486: σθένος Ὠρίωνος. Plato says in sport of Thrasymachos, Phaidr. 267 C.: τὸ τοῦ Χαλκηδονίου σθένος.

τάχος = ὡς τάχος.

ὄφρα: P.'s favorite final particle.

κελεύθῳ ἐν καθαρᾷ: For the path of poesy see N. 6.52: πρόσοδοι, 62: ὁδὸν ἁμαξιτόν, I. 2, 33: οὐδὲ προσάντης κέλευθος γίνεται, I. 3 (4), 19: μυρία πάντᾳ κέλευθος. καθ. “illumined.”

βάσομεν: ὄφρα, as a relative, may take the fut. (Il. 16. 243; Od. 4. 163; 17, 6), and P. has P. 11.9: ὄφρα ... κελαδήσετε, but the “short” subj. is more likely. See O. 1.7.

καὶ γένος: κ., “actually,” “at last,” shows impatience, like ἤδη.

ἐξ ἀλλᾶν: “Above (all) others.” ἐξ as Il. 18. 431: ἐμοὶ ἐκ πασέων Κρονίδης Ζεὺς ἄλγε᾽ ἔθηκεν. ἀλλᾶν Dor. fem. pl. = ἄλλων (ἡμιόνων).

στεφάνους: The chariot was wreathed as well as the victor.

πρὸς Πιτάναν: The nymph of the town in Laconia — not the town itself.

Antistrophe 2

: The myth is often introduced by a relative or equivalent demonstrative, O. 1.25; 3, 13; 8, 31.

μιχθεῖσα: P. much prefers the first aor. p. of this verb to the second.

Κρονίῳ: See O. 2.13.

ϝιόπλοκον: “Black - tressed.” So Bergk for ἰοπλόκαμον (unmetrical) of the best MSS. Cf. P. 1.1: ϝιοπλοκάμων | Μοισᾶν. Allusion to the α μίδαι.

παρθενίαν ὠδῖνα: “Fruit of unwedded love.”

κόλποις: “With the folds of her robe.” References to change of belting, in the circumstances, are common enough in all literature.

κυρίῳ ἐν μηνί: The decisive month.

πέμποισα: See O. 2.23.

ἀμφιπόλους: As . is uniformly fem. in Homer, it may be considered fem. here.

πορσαίνειν δόμεν: So P. 3.45: πόρε Κενταύρῳ διδάξαι, and P. 4.115: τράφειν Χείρωνι δῶκαν.

Εἰλατίδᾳ: This son of Elatos was Aipytos, v. 36.

Φαισάνᾳ: In southern Arkadia, on the upper Alpheios.

οἰκεῖν: Epexegetic inf.

ὑπ᾽ Ἀπόλλωνι: Compare N. 1.68: βελέων ὑπὸ ῥιπαῖσι, Fr. X. 3, 3: ὑπὸ ζεύγλαις ἀφύκτοις, and esp. I. 7, 45: λύοι κεν χαλινὸν ὑφ᾽ ἥρωϊ παρθενίας.

Epode 2

οὐδ᾽ ἔλαθε ... κλέπτοισα: The aor. ἔλαθε would more naturally take the aor. part., but the neg. is killed by the neg. (οὐκ ἔλαθεν = φανερὰ ἦν). Cf. Il. 17. 676. κλ., “hiding.”

ὀξείᾳ μελέτᾳ: As with a bit (ὀξυτέρῳ χαλινῷ, Soph.).

περ᾽: Allowed in P. for περί.

φοινικόκροκον: The passage is characteristically full of color. φ., “crimson.”

καταθηκαμένα: P. gives in detail for the daughter what he had only hinted at for the mother.

κάλπιδα: As in Od. 7. 20: παρθενικῇ ἐικυῖα νεήνιδι κάλπιν ἐχούσῃ.

λόχμας ὑπὸ κυανέας: The genitive with the notion of overarching. Mommsen reads with A λόχμαις ὑπὸ κυανέαις. For genitive, compare O. 2.91; 13, 111. For λόχμα, P. 4.244: κεῖτο γὰρ λόχμᾳ.

κυανέας: The colors are contrasted, dark blue with yellow, cold with warm.

τίκτε = τέξεσθαι ἔμελλε. The imperf. of this verb is in very common use. Sometimes “she was (a) mother” (v. 85), sometimes “she had to bear.”

θεόφρονα: Fit word for a future prophet, “upon whom was the spirit of God.”

Χρυσοκόμας: O. 7.32. Compare P. 2.16: χρυσοχαῖτα.

Ἐλείθυιαν: Cf. N. 7.1: Ἐλείθυια πάρεδρε Μοιρᾶν βαθυφρόνων. O. 1.26, Κλωθώ is the πάρεδρος of Ἐλείθυια.

Μοίρας: P. speaks of Κλωθὼ κασιγνήτας τε, I. 5 (6), 17, and mentions Λάχεσις at the λάχος of Rhodes (O. 7.64), but nowhere calls Ἄτροπος by name.

Strophe 3

ὠδῖνος ... ἐρατᾶς: An oxymoron, like “sweet sorrow.” Compare N. 1.36: σπλάγχνων ὕπο ματέρος αὐτίκα θαητὰν ἐς αἴγλαν παῖς Διὸς | ὠδῖνα φεύγων διδύμῳ σὺν κασιγνήτῳ μόλεν.

αὐτίκα: Effective position. The favorites of the gods are sped in childbirth.

κνιζομένα: On the savagery of the primipara, see Plat. Theaitet. 151 C:μὴ ἀγρίαινε ὥσπερ αἱ πρωτοτόκοι περὶ τὰ παιδία” . Fennell, “though sore distressed.”

λεῖπε: The imperf. denotes reluctance, “had to leave,” “felt that she had to leave.”

δύο ... δράκοντες: Two also in Eur. Ion, 23. The serpent is notoriously mantic and Apollinic, and occurs everywhere in the history of Greek religion. The δράκοντες are children of Gaia. Notice the rarity of dual nouns in P.

γλαυκῶπες: P. 4.249: γλαυκῶπα ποικιλόνωτον ὄφιν. The basilisk eye is proverbial.

ἐθρέψαντο: The affectionate middle, P. 9.20. 95.

ἀμεμφεῖ | ἰῷ: An oxymoron contrast to the natural ἰός of the δράκοντες. The honey, which is also mantic, was a miraculous exudation of the serpent's fangs, and so μελισσᾶν is = μελισσαίῳ. ἰῷ is another play on Ἰαμίδαι.

καδόμενοι: As if they were human.

πετραέσσας ... Πυθῶνος: So. O.R. 463: θεσπιέπεια Δελφὶς πέτρα.

ἐλαύνων: “Hasting.”

τὸν ... τέκοι: The opt. for the ind. in Homer is virtually confined to the interrogative sentence. This Pindaric experiment with the relative is due to the interrogative character of εἴρετο, and has few parallels in classic Greek. So. O.R. 1245: “ καλεῖ τὸν Λάιον
μνήμην παλαιῶν σπερμάτων ἔχουσ᾽ ὑφ᾽ ὧν
θάνοι μὲν αὐτός, τὴν δὲ τίκτουσαν λίποι
”. The examples mainly in Herodotos.

γεγάκειν: A Doric perfect, such as we find most frequently in the Sicilian dialect. τετελευτακούσας occurs in a Delphic inscription (Curtius).

Antistrophe 3

περὶ θνατῶν: As in Od. 1. 66: ὃς περὶ μὲν νόον ἐστὶ βροτῶν, περὶ δ᾽ ἱρὰ θεοῖσιν | ἀθανάτοισιν ἔδωκε. Bergk reads πέρι with most of the codices.

μάνυε: Specialized in prose. Here of prophetic revelations.

εὔχοντο: “Vowed,” “declared.”

ἀλλὰ ... γάρ: “But (in vain) for.” See O. 1.55.

σχοίνῳ: So Odysseus, Od. 5. 463: σχοίνῳ ὑπεκλίνθη.

ἀπειράτῳ: Bergk writes ἀπειρίτῳ (as Od. 10. 195), “limitless.” The quantity ἀπειρα?́τῳ, “unexplored,” is, to say the least, very problematic (ἀπείρητος, Hom.), but ἀπείρα^τος might be to πεῖρας as πέρατος is to πέρας. “Boundless brake.”

ἴων: The colors assigned to the violet here seem to show that the pansy is meant(viola tricolor), the yellow eye of the violet being too small for the prominence of ξανθαῖσι. ἴον means also “gillyflower.”

παμπορφύροις: “Deep purple.”

βεβρεγμένος: “Steeped.”

τό: “Therefore.”

σῶμα: In Homer only of the dead body.

κατεφάμιξεν: She dedicated him to be called. Her calling was a dedication; the nomen was an omen, as often.

χρόνῳ σύμπαντι: “For all time,” where ἐς πάντα χρόνον would be coarser, and ἐν παντὶ χρόνῳ would make us lose the intent.

Epode 3

τοῦτ᾽ ὄνυμα: Iamos

χρυσοστεφάνοιο ... Ἥβας: So P. 9.118: χρυσοστεφάνου δέ ϝοι Ἥβας | καρπὸν ἀνθήσαντ᾽ ἀποδρέψαι | ἔθελον. A consecrated epithet, Hes. Theog. 17: Ἥβην τε χρυσοστέφανον καλήν τε Διώνην.

Ἀλφεῷ μέσσῳ: Dat. of approach. The god of the sea is also god of the river. Besides, Alpheios runs straight to the main. “Mid-Alpheios” (Schol.). Others, “into the middle of the Alpheios.”

εὐρυβίαν: P. 2.12.

πρόγονον: v. 29.

σκοπόν: Compare P. 3.27: οὐδ᾽ ἔλαθε σκοπόν.

θεοδμάτας: Here in its full sense. See O. 3.7.

λαοτρόφον τιμάν: The honor of a ποιμὴν λαῶν.

ἑᾷ κεφαλᾷ: Cf. O. 7.67: ἑᾷ κεφαλᾷ ... γέρας.

νυκτὸς ὑπαίθριος: Compare the scene, O. 1.71.

ἀρτιεπής: “Clear speaking.” So I. 4 (5), 46. Compare ἀρτίπους, ἀρτίστομος. Not Λοξίας, the riddlesome, this time.

μετάλλασεν: The voice sought him in the dark and (when it found him) said. The commentators have made much difficulty about the highly poetical expression.

πάγκοινον ἐς χώραν: Compare O. 3.17: Διὸς αἴτει πανδόκῳ ἄλσει. π., a prophecy rather than a prolepsis in the usual sense of that word.

φάμας ὄπισθεν: “In the track of my voice.”

Strophe 4

ἀλίβατον: An Homeric word (ἠλίβατος) of uncertain meaning. “Steep” might answer here, “brambly” (Goebel) would not. εὐδείελον Κρόνιον (O. 1.111) does not help us.

τόκα = τότε.

θρασυμάχανος: Cf. N. 4.62: θρασυμαχάνων τε λεόντων, which shows the survival of the etymological meaning of μηχανή, “might,” “power.”

θάλος: So O. 2.49: Ἀδραστιδᾶν θάλος ἀρωγὸν δόμοις.

Ἀλκαϊδᾶν: From Ἀλκαῖος, the father of Amphitryon. We are more familiar with the form Alcides, Ἀλκείδης.

ἐπ᾽ ἀκροτάτῳ βωμῷ: The altar was built of the ashes of the sacrifices, and consisted of two parts; on the upper and lesser the thighs of the victims were burned, and the divination performed, Paus. 5, 13, 9.

τότ᾽ αὖ: The contrast to τόκα μέν is put characteristically at the end, not at the beginning of the δέ clause.

κέλευσεν: A shift of construction, instead of leaving θέσθαι in apposition with θησαυρόν.

Antistrophe 4

ἐξ οὗ: “Since when,” not a part of the promise. Supply ἐστί as usual, “has been and is.” Some have no stop at Ἰαμιδᾶν, and make γένος depend on ἕσπετο, a rare accusative, on the strength of N. 10.37.

τιμῶντες: “Prizing.”

ἐς φανερὰν ὁδόν: Compare v. 23: κελεύθῳ ... καθαρᾷ, and contrast the picture of home-sneaking youths, P. 8.87: κατὰ λαύρας δ᾽ ἐχθρῶν ἀπάοροι πτώσσοντι.

χρῆμ᾽ ἕκαστον: Each action is a proof (thereof). So χρῆμ᾽ ἕκαστον, of achievements, O. 9.112. Others: Action proveth each man.

μῶμος: Cf. fr. XI. 42: ποτὶ μῶμον ἔπαινος κίρναται. Blame and praise are inseparable.

ἐξ: Of the source.

κρέμαται = ἐπικρέμαται (Schol.).

περὶ δωδέκατον δρέμον: See O. 3.33.

ποτιστάξῃ ... μορφάν: Victory transfigures. So the Schol.: οἱ νικῶντες δοκοῦσιν εὐειδεῖς εἶναι. No one who has seen can forget the light of battle even on vulgar faces, and everybody notices the beauty of homely brides. As Iamos is steeped in violet light (v. 55), so Agesias has beauty distilled upon him. ποτιστάξῃ with Bergk for ποτιστάζει. For the generic subj. (without ἄν), see O. 3.13: τινι ... βάλῃ.

ὑπὸ Κυλλάνας ὄρους: So Christ, after the Schol., for ὅροις. The genitive in O. 13.111: ταί θ᾽ ὑπ᾽ Αἴτνας ὑψιλόφου καλλίπλουτοι πόλιες.

μάτρωες ἄνδρες: The double lineage is insisted on. The maternal stock is one of the two anchors, v. 100.

Epode 4

ἐδώρησαν: The aor. act. occurs also Hes. O. et D. 82.

θεῶν κάρυκα: Hermes is often Cyllenius. Od. 24, 1:Ἑρμῆς δὲ ψυχὰς Κυλλήνιος ἐξεκαλεῖτο.

λιταῖς = λιτανευτικαῖς (Schol.). “Supplicatory.” Compare P. 4.217.

ἀγῶνας ἔχει μοῖράν τ᾽ ἀέθλων: On ἐναγώνιος Ἑρμᾶς see P. 2.10; for ἀέθλων ... μοῖρα, I. 3 (4), 10.

εὐάνορα: Applied to the Peloponnesos, O. 1.24; to the Lokrians, O. 10 (11), 109; to Argos, N. 10.36; to the sturdy Acharnians, N. 2.17.

δόξαν ... πνοαϊς: One of the harshest combinations in P., at least to our feeling, but the tongue is freely handled in Greek. It is a bow, I. 4 (5), 47: γλῶσσά μοι τοξεύματ᾽ ἔχει. It is a dart, N. 7.71: ἄκονθ᾽ ὧτε χαλκοπάρᾳον (compare the use of γλωχίν, So. Tr. 681). Being a dart, it can be hammered, P. 1.86: χάλκευε γλῶσσαν, or sharpened, as here. The trainer is a Ναξία ἀκόνα, I. 5 (6), 73, and the poet's tongue is to be edged as the spirit of athletes is edged, O. 10 (11), 22. The word λιγυρᾶς is not used in a bad sense; the Greeks liked piercing sounds, and καλλιρόοισι πνοαῖς shows that in this case, at any rate, the sound of the whetstone was the voice of the Muses. The shrill whetstone that P. feels on his tongue accosts him with sweet breathings, and with a welcome message.

γλώσσᾳ: We want the dative and accept the hiatus, as O. 3.30: Ὀρθωσίᾳ ἔγραψεν.

προσέρπει: So with Mommsen and the best MSS. The inferior MSS. have προσέλκει, “draws to,” with ἐθέλοντα as an oxymoron, “which to harmonious breath constraineth me nothing loth” (Myers). We should expect rather some such word as προσείλει (προσειλεῖ), “forces.”

καλλιρόοισι πνοαῖς: If προσέλκει is read, κ. π. is the dat. of approach.

ματρομάτωρ ἐμὰ, κτἑ.: Metope, daughter of Ladon, and nymph of a body of water near Stymphalos, was the mother of Thebe by Asopos.

Strophe 5

πλάξιππον Θήβαν: Hes. Scut. 24: Βοιωτοὶ πλήξιπποι.

ἔτικτεν: See v. 41. P. 9.18: ὅν ποτε ... Κρείοισ᾽ ἔτικτεν.

ἐρατεινὸν ὕδωρ: Much stress is laid everywhere on the waters of Thebes. Compare P. 9.94: κωφὸς ἀνήρ τις, ὃς ... μηδὲ Διρκαίων ὑδάτων ἀὲ μέμναται.

πίομαι: A pres. form used everywhere as a fut. except here, where Curtius (Gr. Verb. II^{1}. 290) considers it to have a pres. force.

Αἰνέα: Aineas was P.'s χοροδιδάσκαλος, and was to him what Phintis was to Agesias. It is supposed that Aineas was a Stymphalian relative of Agesias, and a local poet — the proper man for the performance of an ode intended to be sung at Stymphalos. The task Ἥραν Παρθενίαν κελαδῆσαι was to be the work of Aineas himself, to be followed by P.'s ode, which Aineas was to produce, and to find out by its effect whether P. was open to the old sneer against Boeotians. Aineas is a man whom he can trust with the execution of a commission which should silence the cavillers in Stymphalos.

Ἥραν Παρθενίαν: A Stymphalian goddess. Hera had three temples there, and three names, παῖς (παρθένος), τελεία, χήρα, Paus. 8, 22, 2.

ἀρχαῖον ὄνειδος ... Βοιωτίαν ὗν: Compare fr. IV. 9: ἦν ὅτε σύας τὸ Βοιώτιον ἔθνος ἔνεπον. The Ὕαντες were old inhabitants of Boeotia. The moral character of the swine was not exactly the same among the Greeks as it is among us and the Semites. Compare Phokyl. 3, 5: δὲ συὸς βλοσυρῆς οὔτ᾽ ἂν κακὴ οὐδὲ μὲν ἐσθλή.

ἀλαθέσιν | λόγοις = ταῖς ἀληθείαις: “In very truth” (after an honest calculation).

φεύγομεν = perf.

ἄγγελος ὀρθός: Of the words. He is faithful.

ἠυκόμων σκυτάλα Μοισᾶν: Of the musical and orchestic part. He is retentive.

γλυκὺς κρατήρ: Shifting of the metaphor. He adds a charm of his own. See Introductory Essay, p. xli.

Antistrophe 5

εἰπόν: So the best editors with Ailios Dionysios.

Ὀρτυγίας: Sacred to Artemis, an Arkadian goddess.

φοινικόπεζαν: So called with reference to the color of the ripening grain

Δάματρα: Hieron was an hereditary priest of Demeter and Persephone, who belonged to the Triopian deities, as did Apollo (Hdt. 1, 144), and Demeter and Persephone were much worshipped in Arkadia.

λευκίππου: So, especially, when she returns in the spring.

Ζηνὸς Αἰτναίου: Cf. N. 1.6: Ζηνὸς Αἰτναίου χάριν. Aitna was an especial pet of Hieron, who is called Αἰτναῖος in the title of P. 1, Αἰτναῖος ξένος P. 3.69.

λύραι μολπαί τε: P. composed in his honor three Pythians, one Olympian, and fragments of a skolion and a hyporchema remain.

γινώσκοντι: So O. 7.83: ἐν Ἄργει χαλκὸς ἔγνω νιν.

θράσσοι = ταράσσοι: So for θραύσοι, with the Schol., Böckh. The fut. opt. cannot be defended. Bergk cites So. O.R. 1274, where ὀψοίαθ᾽ οὐ γνωσοίατο are in oratio obliqua, and represent fut. ind. We should have to read θραύσαι with Hermann, or θραύοι with van Herwerden.

Epode 5

οἴκοθεν οἴκαδ᾽: With a sweet security of transfer (compare Aus Gottes Hand in Gottes Hand). So also O. 7.3: δωρήσεται ... οἴκοθεν οἴκαδε, and, for the opposite, see O. 3.44.

ματέρ᾽ Ἀρκαδίας: Stymphalos. Cf. O. 9.22: κλυτὰν Λοκρῶν ἐπαείροντι ματέρ᾽ ἀγλαόδενδρον. The metropolis is not necessarily the oldest town.

εὐμήλοιο: Heyne reads εὐμάλοιο. See O. 1.12.

δύ᾽ ἄγκυραι: On either side of the prow (Paley). Starboard and port, not fore and aft. Proverbial. The two homes, with the double line of descent.

τῶνδε: Stymphalians.

κείνων τε: Syracusans.

δέσποτα ποντόμεδον: Return to Poseldon, suggested by the ship. With ποντόμεδο_ν, compare P. 3.6.

εὐθὺν δέ: On δέ after the voc., see O. 1.36.

δίδοι = δίδου.

χρυσαλακάτοιο: “Gold-distaff” is a poetic way of sexing the sea (Böckh).

Ἀμφιτρίτας: Amphitrite has, as her special province, the waves (Od. 3. 91) and the great fishes, κήτεα, Od. 5. 422, and 12, 97.

ὕμνων ... ἄνθος: Cf. O. 9.52: ἄνθεα δ᾽ ὕμνων | νεωτέρων.

Diagoras of Rhodes, most famous of Greek boxers, won the victory here celebrated Ol. 79, 1 (464 B.C.).

The poem was composed soon afterwards, as we may gather from v. 13: σὺν Διαγόρᾳ κατέβαν, and was sung at Rhodes.

Diagoras was a Herakleid. In the third generation after Temenos a Doric colony went from Argos to Rhodes by way of Epidauros. The leaders were descendants of Tlepolemos, son of Herakles, and Pindar makes Tlepolemos himself the founder of the colony. The Herakleidai occupied three cities of Rhodes, and established a triple kingdom. Those who inhabited Ialysos were called Eratidai, and this was the stock of Diagoras, who also counted among his ancestors a son-in-law of the famous Messenian leader, Aristomenes. The royal power of the Eratidai ceased after Ol. 30, and in the time of Pindar prytaneis ruled instead; and it is supposed that the father of Diagoras, Damagētos, was such a prytanis. Of an illustrious family, Diagoras won for himself unparalleled distinction as a boxer. Besides being victorious at many local games, he was successful at all the national games, and so became a περιοδονίκης. His sons emulated the head of the house. His youngest, Dorieus, had a career only less brilliant than that of his father. Damagētos won the pankration at Olympia, Akusilaos a boxing-match. The two sons of his daughters were also victors at Olympia, and one of his daughters enjoyed the exceptional privilege of being present at the Olympian games. The statue of Diagoras, surrounded by his three sons and two grandsons, the work of Kallikles of Megara, was erected at Olympia; and familiar is the story of the Spartan who, when he saw Diagoras borne on the shoulders of his two laurelled sons, exclaimed, “Die, Diagoras, for thou canst not mount to heaven” (Cic. Tusc. 1, 46, 111). It is not known whether Diagoras followed the advice or lived to see the downfall of his family. Rhodes belonged to the Delian league. Two years before the victory here celebrated the battles of Eurymedon were fought (466), and Athens was at the height of her power. Enemies of aristocratic government, the Athenians favored the commons as against the Doric aristocracy of Rhodes. Diagoras's son, Dorieus, fled to Thurioi, but returned and fought against the Athenians in his own ships, was captured, but liberated. Again exiled, he went to the Peloponnesos, where he was arrested by the Spartans and executed. But these events befell many years after the date of the victory celebrated in this ode.

The good fortune of Diagoras was proverbial. The Morere, Diagora of Cicero's version of his story, cited above, is in the school-books. But if we had no evidence outside of this ode, we should know by Pindar's recital that his career was brilliant, as his home was brilliant — Rhodes, child of Aphrodite, bride of the sun (v. 14). No wonder that the golden beaker and the foaming wine are used to symbolize the song in honor of such a victor and such a home (v. 1, foll.). But there must be shade as well as light. Nemesis does not allow too much happiness, and in the history of the line of Diagoras, Pindar finds enough trouble for contrast, each trouble ending in higher joy. So, should the happiness of Diagoras ever be interrupted, there is good hope of more than recompense. Tlepolemos, founder of the house, slew the brother of Alkmena — passion had overmastered him (v. 27) — but Apollo sent him to Rhodes, where he received “sweet ransom for grievous disaster” (v. 77). The sons of Helios, lord of Rhodes, were bidden to raise an altar to Athena and sacrifice to the Great Sire and the Warrior-maid. Wise as they were, they forgot fire, and offered flameless sacrifices. Yet the gods forgave; Zeus sent them gold, Athena cunning craft (vv. 39-53). Helios himself, pure god, was absent at the partition of the earth; yet he received a boon that he himself preferred to all besides (vv. 54-76). In each of these three cases we have a good beginning followed by misfortune, and yet a good ending crowns all. Diagoras was fortunate. Both ἀρετά and χάρματα were his (cf. v. 44), but he might one day forget; he trod a noble path, ὕβριος ἐχθρὰν ὁδόν (v. 90), but passion might overtake him; he was a prince among men as Helios was a prince among gods, but he might, in his absence, be forgotten; but should Nemesis have aught against Diagoras, he may yet hope to find, like Tlepolemos, like the sons of Helios, like Helios himself, λύτρον συμφορᾶς οἰκτρᾶς γλυκύ (v. 77). The winds shift (v. 95), but the divine helmsman steers the ship to its haven.

A remarkable feature of the myth is the reversal of the usual chronological order. We begin with Tlepolemos and end with the emergence of Rhodes. The climax is in the rank of those who have sinned, who have forgotten, who have been absent. Note that the fault is less the higher we mount. No wonder that an explanation has been sought of the triple shadow that falls across the poem. The Scholiast on v. 94 assumes that Diagoras had got into discredit by killing one of his opponents. But this must have been in some previous contest, for in such an event there would have been no victory, as is shown by the case of Kleomedes (Paus. 6, 9, 6). The shadow may come from the future, as has been assumed above, but there is danger of being a Προμηθεὺς μετὰ τὰ πράγματα, and to Diagoras the words τοῦτο δ᾽ ἀμάχανον εὑρεῖν, | τι νῦν ἐν καὶ τελευτᾷ φέρτατον ἀνδρὶ τυχεῖν (v. 25) need not have been ominous. The changing breezes of the close may bring good as well as evil.

The rhythms are dactylo-epitrite.

Of the five triads, the first is occupied with the introduction; the second, third, and fourth unfold the fortunes of the house — Tlepolemos, the Heliadai, Helios himself. The last triad turns to Diagoras. The divisions are all clear-cut, the triads do not overlap — a rare thing in Pindar.

On the statement that this ode was preserved in the temple of Athena at Lindos in letters of gold, see Ch. Graux, Rev. de Phil. V. 117, who thinks that the offering was “a little roll (βιβλίον, volumen) of parchment or fine leather, bearing on its inner surface the ode written in gold ink.”

Strophe 1

φιάλαν: The father of the bride pledged the bridegroom in a beaker of wine and then presented him with the beaker, evidently a formula of espousal. See Athen. 13, 35, p. 575 D. The φιάλη was not a drinking-vessel in Homeric times.

ἀφνειᾶς ἀπὸ χειρός: Combined with δωρήσεται. ἀπό has the connotation of “freely.” Compare ἀπὸ γλώσσας, O. 6.13.

ἑλών. For “pleonastic” (Dissen) read “plastic.”

καχλάζοισαν: “Bubbling,” “foaming.”

δωρήσεται: P. has ὡς εἰ only here, ὡς ὅτε once with the ind. (N. 8.40). Homer has ὡς εἰ with subj. once (Il. 9, 481), with ind. once (Il. 13. 492). δωρήσεται is the generic subj., and the shift from subj. to indic., θῆκε, may be compared to the shift with ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε in Homer (e. g., Il. 11. 414), in which “the most important point of the comparison is usually expressed by the subjunctive, while details and subordinate incidents are given in the ind.” (Monro after Delbrück). Still θῆκε produces the effect of an apodosis (compare N. 7.11: εἰ δὲ τύχῃ τις ἔρδων, μελίφρον᾽ αἰτίαν ῥοαῖσι Μοισᾶν ἐνέβαλε). It is not a mere picturesque addition, but forms an organic part of the comparison. However, as this use of δέ is not absolutely certain in P., in spite of νῦν δέ (O. 3.43), it may be well not to urge it here. The effect can be got at all the same. P. is nothing, if not implicit.

προπίνων: προπίνειν ἐστὶ κυρίως τὸ ἅμα τῷ κράματι τὸ ἀγγεῖον χαρίζεσθαι (Schol.).

οἴκοθεν οἴκαδε: From home to home and so binding home to home. See O. 6.99.

κορυφάν: O. 1.13.

συμποσίου τε χάριν: ἀντὶ τοῦ τῶν ἐν τῷ συμποσίῳ (Schol.). “For the sake of them that sat at drink with him.” ς. = οἱ συμπίνοντες, as θέατρον = οἱ θεώμενοι. Others, “to grace the banquet.”

τιμάσαις: Coincident with δωρήσεται as an aorist subj. Compare P. 4.189.

ἒν δέ: “Therein” = “thereby.”

θῆκε: So often in P., as O. 8.18: θῆκεν Ὀλυμπιονίκαν, 13, 98: θήσω φανέρ᾽ ἀθρόα, P. 9.58: ἔνθα νιν ἀρχέπολιν θήσεις.

ζαλωτὸν ὁμόφρονος εὐνᾶς: The present is a prelude and a pledge of an harmonious wedlock — a great boon now as then. εὐνᾶς, so-called genitive of the source of emotion.

Antistrophe 1

καὶ ἐγώ = οὕτω καὶ ἐγώ. Compare O. 10 (11), 94: ὧτε ... καί.

νέκταρ χυτόν: Persius, Prol. 14, “Pegaseïum nectar.χ., acc. to the Schol., denotes τὸ αὐτόματον καὶ ἄκρατον, “liquid.”

Μοισᾶν δόσιν: The Muses have given it ἀφνειᾶς ἀπὸ χειρός. But the figure is not carried out, though it might have been. The φιάλα would have represented the maestro di cappella. Compare O. 6.91, where Aineas is called γλυκὺς κρατὴρ ἀγαφθέγκτων ἀοιδᾶν.

ἀνδράσιν ... νικώντεσσιν: Class for individual. Diagoras had been successful at both places.

γλυκὺν καρπὸν φρενός: Follows as an after-thought, like πάγχρυσον κορυφὰν κτεάνων above.

ἱλάσκομαι = ἱλαροὺς ποιῶ (Schol.), “I cheer them,” but the equipoise of the passage demands a graver sense, such as τιμῶ, corresponding to τιμάσαις (v. 5), “pay homage.” If ἱλαροὺς ποιῶ is not for ἱλάους (ἵλεωςποιῶ, the Scholiast manufactured the sense “cheer” on account of the superhuman sphere of ἱλάσκομαι.

κατέχοντι: See P. 1.96: ἐχθρὰ Φάλαριν κατέχει παντᾷ φάτις οὐδέ νιν φόρμιγγες ὑπωρόφιαι κοινωνίαν | μαλθακὰν παίδων ὀάροισι δέκονται. Song is the earnest of abiding good report, as the cup is the pledge of harmonious wedlock; but Charis, the goddess of the epinikion, casts her eyes now on one and now on another.

ἐποπτεύει: “Looks” (with favor). P. 3.85: λαγέταν γάρ τοι τύραννον δέρκεται.

ξωθάλμιος: “That giveth life its bloom” (more fully expressed, O. 1.30: ἅπερ ἅπαντα τεύχει τὰ μείλιχα θνατοῖς). A similar formation is βιοθάλμιος, Hymn. in Ven. 190.

θάμα = ἅμα, whereas θαμά is θαμάκις, “often” (Bergk). The assumption of this θάμα has been vigorously opposed by J. K. Ingram in Hermathena, No. 3, 217-227.

μὲν ... τε: O. 4. 13.

φόρμιγγι: The regimen is suspended until ἐν comes in with ἔντεσιν. (But see note, O. 9.94). So the first negative of two or more may be omitted, P. 6.48.

παμφώνοισι: See P. 12.19: αὐλῶν πάμφωνον μέλος, and 21: σὺν ἔντεσι. For ἐν of instruments, see O. 5.19; N. 11.17; I. 4, 27.

Epode 1

ὑπ᾽ ἀμφοτέρων: O. 4.2: ὑπὸ ποικιλοφόρμιγγος ἀοιδᾶς.

κατέβαν: Figuratively. So O. 9.89; Ν. 10, 43. For the verb, see P. 3.73, which there also is used absolutely.

τὰν ποντίαν: Depends on ὑμνέων. τὰν ποντίαν is usu. combined with Ῥόδον. As to the distance, see O. 12.5. Still it is better to take the words as they come — the daughter of the sea (τὰν ποντίαν = τὰν πόντου) — child of Aphrodite — bride of the sun. With τὰν ποντίαν παῖδ᾽ Ἀφροδίτας, compare Κρόνιε παῖ Ῥέας (O. 2.13).

παρ᾽ Ἀλφειῷ: So below παρὰ Κασταλίᾳ. In prose this would be felt as personal, “in Alpheios's demesne,” “in Kastalia's home;” here not so much. See O. 1.20.

πυγμᾶς ἄποινα: The full acc. force is felt in ἄποινα, which has to be revived for χάριν, δίκην. The αἶνος is the ἄποινα, as the ὕμνος is the ἄποινα, I. 3 (4), 7: εὐκλέων δ᾽ ἔργων ἄποινα χρὴ μὲν ὑμνῆσαι τὸν ἐσλόν.

παρὰ Κασταλίᾳ: So N. 11.24.

Δαμάγητον: A prytanis, as Böckh infers from what follows.

ἀδόντα: See O. 3.1. P.'s ψίλωσις of this word is neglected in some editions and lexicons. With the phrase compare I. 3 (4), 33: χαλκέῳ τ᾽ Ἄρει ϝάδον.

τρίπολιν: So Il. 2. 655: οἳ Ῥόδον ἀμφενέμοντο διὰ τρίχα κοσμηθέντες | Λίνδον, Ἰηλυσόν τε καὶ ἀργινόεντα Κάμειρον.

νᾶσον: With an easy transition from the nymph to the island.

ἐμβόλῳ: The “ship's beak” headland is Κυνὸς σῆμα in Karia.

Ἀργείᾳ: Rhodes was colonized from Argos.

αἰχμᾷ = αἰχματαῖς.

Strophe 2

ἐθελήσω ... διορθῶσαι = ἐθέλων διορθώσω. P. uses the more prosaic βούλομαι only once.

τοῖσιν ἐξ ἀρχᾶς: Explained by ἀπὸ Τλαπολέμου, and magnified by Ἡρακλέος εὐρυσθενεῖ γέννᾳ.

ξυνόν: “That touches the common stock.” Compare P. 9.101: τό γ᾽ ἐν ξυνῷ πεποναμένον, I. 1, 46: ξυνὸν ὀρθῶσαι κακόν, 5 (6), 69: ξυνὸν ἄστει κόσμον ἑῷ προσάγων.

ἀγγέλλων: Of public announcements. So P. 9.2: ἐθέλω ... ἀγγέλλων ... γεγωνεῖν.

διορθῶσαι = διελθεῖν ὀρθῶς.

ἐκ Διός: The line is:

Alektruon Likumnios Alkmene Zeus Herakles Tlepolemos Amuntor Astudameia

ἐκ is omitted with the nearer in the line, Ἀστυδαμείας. Acc. to Il. 2. 658, the mother was Ἀστυόχεια, but in these far-away matters we must be satisfied with any feminine ending. Compare Ἰφιγένεια and Ἰφιάνασσα, Περσεφόνεια and Περσέφασσα.

Ἀμυντορίδαι: Amyntor, king of Armenion in Magnesia, overcome by Herakles.

ἀμφὶ ... κρέμανται: Cf. I. 2, 43: φθονεραὶ θνατῶν φρένας ἀμφικρέμανται ϝελπίδες. There seems to be an allusion to lures or nets.

Antistrophe 2

νῦν ἐν καὶ τελευτᾷ: For the trajection of καί, which gives especial emphasis to the second member, compare O. 2.31; P. 10.58; N. 7.31.

τυχεῖν: Epexegetic infinitive.

Λικύμνιον ... Μιδέας: L. was the son of Elektryon and his concubine Midea, and as Elektryon was the father of Alkmene, Tlepolemos killed his father's uncle. See table, and cf. Il. 2. 662: αὐτίκα πατρὸς ἑοῖο φίλον μήτρωα κατέκτα | ἤδη γηράσκοντα Λικύμνιον ὄζον Ἄρηος.

ἐς θεόν: ἐς of motion to a person is rare in Pindar, O. 2.38 and 54. The person is the place.

Epode 2

Χρυσοκόμας: O. 6.41.

εὐώδεος: Sweet odors rose every now and then from the opening covered by the tripod.

πλόον: Involves πλεῖν. εἶπε πλόον = ἐκέλευσε πλεῖν. Cf. P. 4.6: χρῆσεν Βάττον οἰκιστῆρα = χ. Β. οἰκίσαι.

ἀμφιθάλασσον νομόν: Oracles delight in circumlocution for the saving of their credit. So P. 9.59: ὄχθον ἐς ἀμφίπεδον.

Λερναίας: Dwellingplace of the hydra, forty stades from Argos, Strabo, 8, p. 368 and 371.

ἁνίχ᾽: Compare P. 4.48.

τέχναισιν: For the pl. compare O. 9.56; P. 3.11; 4, 249; 8, 60.

κατ᾽ ἄκραν: We should expect ἐξ, but Athena makes her sire's head the stage of her first appearance. So N. 10.17: Ἡρακλέος οὗ κατ᾽ Ὄλυμπον ἄλοχος Ἥβα ... ἔστι.

Strophe 3

φαυσίμβροτος: Od. 10. 191: Ἠέλιος φαεσίμβροτος.

Ὑπεριονίδας: An overdone patronymic, like Ταλαϊονίδας, Ο. 6, 15.

χρέος: “Duty.” The service was the worship of Athena with burnt-offerings.

ὡς ἄν = ὅπως ἄν, due to φυλάξασθαι, which involves the “how” of an action. So even in prose. Cf. Dem. 6, 3 (with παρεσκευάσθαι), to say nothing of Xenophon, who has it often with ἐπιμελεῖσθαι (e. g. Cyr. 1, 2, 5). In Homer with a verb of will, Od. 17. 362: ὤτρυν᾽ ὡς ἂν πύρνα κατὰ μνηστῆρας ἀγείροι.

ἐγχειβρόμῳ: Formed like ἐγχεικέραυνος, P. 4.194.

ἔβαλεν: Gnomic.

Αἰδώς: As a personification. Reverence is the daughter of Wisdom. If knowledge were wisdom, it would not be necessary to say “Let knowledge grow from more to more | Yet more of reverence in us dwell.” The reverence here is the respect to the χρέος<