), father of HEROD the Great, was, according to Josephus, the son of a noble Idumaean of the same name, to whom the government of Idumaea had been given by Alexander Jannaeus and his wife Alexandra, and at their court the young Antipater was brought up.
The two other accounts which we have of his parentage appear to be false. (J. AJ 14.1.3
; Nicol. Damasc. apud Joseph. l.c.;
African. apud Euseb. Hist. Eccl.
1.6, 7; Phot. Bil.
n. 76, 238.) In B. C. 65, he persuaded Hyrcanus to take refuge from his brother Aristobulus II. with Aretas, king of Arabia Petraea, by whom accordingly an unsuccessful attempt was made to replace Hyrcanus on the throne. (Ant.
14.2, Bell. Jud.
1.6.2.) In B. C. 64, Antipater again supported the cause of this prince before Pompey in Coele-Syria. (Ant.
In the ensuing year, Jerusalem was taken by Pompey, and Aristobulus was deposed ; and henceforth we find Antipater both zealously adhering to Hyrcanus, and labouring to ingratiate himself with the Romans. His services to the latter, especially against Alexander son of Aristobulus and in Egypt against Archelaus (B. C. 57 and 56), were favourably regarded by Scaurus and Gabinius, the lieutenants of Pompey; his active zeal under Mithridates of Pergamus in the Alexandrian war (B. C. 48) was rewarded by Julius Caesar with the gift of Roman citizenship; and, on Caesar's coming into Syria (B. C. 47), Hyrcanus was confirmed by him in the high-priesthood, through Antipater's influence, notwithstanding the complaints of Antigonus son of Aristobulus, while Antipater himself was appointed procurator of Judaea. (J. AJ 14.5
. §§ 1, 2, 6. §§ 2-4, 8, Bell. Jud.
1.8. §§ 1, 3, 7, 9. §§ 3-5.) After Caesar had left Syria to go against Pharnaces, Antipater set himself to provide for the quiet settlement of the country under the existing government, and appointed his sons Phasaelus and Herod to be governors respectively of Jerusalem and Galilee. (J. AJ 14.9
. §§ 1, 2, Bell. Jud.
1.10.4.) His care for the peace and good order of the province was further shewn in B. C. 46, when he dissuaded Herod from his purpose of attacking Hyreanus in Jerusalem [HERODES
], and again in B. C. 43 (the year after Caesar's murder), by his regulations for the collection of the tax imposed on Judaea by Cassius for the support of his troops. (Ant.
14.9.5, 11.2, Bell. Jud.
1.10.9, 11.2.) To the last-mentioned year his death is to be referred.
He was carried off by poison which Malichus, whose life he had twice saved [MALICHUS], bribed the cup-bearer of Hyrcanus to administer to him. (Ant.
14.11. §§ 2-4, Bell. Jud.
1.11. §§ 2-4.) For his family, see J. AJ 14.7.3