), son of HEROD the Great by Malthace, a Samaritan woman, is called by Dio Cassius Ἡρώδης Παλαιστηνός
, and was whole brother to Herod Antipas. (D. C. 55.27
; J. AJ 17.1.3
; Bell. Jud.
The will of Herod, which had at first been so drawn up as to exclude Archelaus in consequence of the false representations of his eldest brother Antipater, was afterward altered in his favour on the discovery of the latter's treachery [see p. 203]; and, on the death of Herod, he was saluted as king by the army.
This title, however, he declined till it should be ratified by Augustus; and, in a speech to the people after his father's funeral, he made large professions of his moderation and his willingness to redress all grievances. (J. AJ 17.4.3
. §§ 2-4; Bell. Jud.
1.31.1, 32.7, 33. §§ 7-9.) Immediately after this a serious sedition occurred, which Archelaus quenched in blood (Ant.
17.9. §§ 1-3; Bell. Jud.
2.1; comp. Ant.
17.6; Bell. Jud.
1.33), and he then proceeded to Rome to obtain the confirmation of his father's will. Here he was opposed by Antipas, who was supported by Herod's sister Salome and her son Antipater, and ambassadors also came from the Jews to complain of the cruelty of Archelaus, and to entreat that their country might be annexed to Syria and ruled by Roman governors.
The will of Herod was, however, ratified in its main points by Augustus, and in the division of the kingdom Archelaus received Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, with the title of Ethnarch, and a promise of that of king should he be found to deserve it. (Ant.
17.9, 11; Bell. Jatd.
2.2, 6; Euseb. Hist. Eccl.
1.9; comp. Luke, 19.12-27.) On his return from Rome he set the Jewish law at defiance by his marriage with Glaphyra (daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia), the widow of his brother Alexander, by whom she had children living (Levit. 18.16, 20.21; Dent. 25.5); and, his general government being most tyrannical, he was again accused before Augustus by the Jews in the 10th year of his reign (A. D. 7), and, as he was unable to clear himself from their charges, he was banished to Vienna in G(aul, where he died. (Ant.
17.13; Bell. Jitd.
2.7.3; Strab. xvi. p.765
; D. C. 4.27
; Euseb. Hist. Eccl.