There are a great many Persian names beginning with Aria
--, and Art
--, which all contain the root Ar,
which is seen in Ἀρταῖοι
, the ancient national name of the Persians (Hdt. 7.61
), and Ἄριοι
, likewise an ancient designation of the inhabitants of the table-land of Persia. (Hdt. 3.93
.) Dr. Rosen, to whom we are indebted for these remarks, (in Quarterly Journal of Education,
vol. ix. p. 336,) also observes that the name Arii
is the same with the Sanscrit word Arya,
by which in the writings of the Hindus the followers of the Brahmanical law are designated.
He shews that Arya
signifies in Sanscrit " honourable, entitled to respect," and Arta,
in all probability, " honoured, respected." In Aria-rathes,
the latter part of the word apparently is the same as the Zend ratu,
" great, master" (Bopp, Vergleichende Gramamatik,
p. 196), and the name would therefore signify "an honourable master." (Comp. Pott, Etymologische Forschungen,
p. xxxvi., &c.)
Ariarathes was the name of several kings of Cappadocia, who traced their origin to Anaphas, one of the seven Persian chiefs who slew the Magi. [ANAPHAS.]
The son of Ariamnes I., was distinguished for his love of his brother Holophernes, whom he sent to assist Ochus in the recovery of Egypt, B. C. 350.
After the death of Alexander
, Perdiccas appointed Eumenes governor of Cappadocia; but upon Ariarathes refusing to submit to Eumenes, Perdiccas made war upon him. Ariarathes was defeated, taken prisoner, and crucified, together with many of his relations, B. C. 322. Eumenes then obtained possession of Cappadocia. Ariarathes was 82 years of age at the time of his death : he had adopted as his son, Ariarathes, the eldest son of his brother Holophernes. (Diod. xxxi. Ed.
3, where it is stated that he fell in battle; Diod. 18.16
; Arrian, apud Phot. Cod.
92, p. 69b. 26. ed. Bekker; Appian, App. Mith. 8
; Lucian, Macrob.
13; Plut. Eum. 3
; Justin, 13.6
, whose account is quite erroneous.)
Son of Holophernes, fled into Armenia after the death of Ariarathes I.
After the death of Eumenes, B. C. 315, he recovered Cappadocia with the assistance of Ardoates, the Armenian king, and killed Amyntas, the Macedonian governor.
He was succeeded by Ariamnes II., the eldest of his three sons. (Diod. xxxi. Ecl.
Son of Ariamnes II., and grandson of the preceding, married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II., king of Syria, and obtained a share in the government during the life-time of his father. (Diod. l.c.
Son of the preceding, was a child at his accession, and reigned B. C. 220-163, about 57 years. (Diod. l.c. ; Just. 29.1
; Plb. 4.2
He married Antiochis, the daughter of Antiochus III., king of Syria, and, in consequence of this alliance, assisted Antiochus in his war against the Romans.
After the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans, B. C. 190, Ariarathes sued for peace in 188, which he obtained on favourable terms, as his daughter was about that time betrothed to Eumenes, the ally of the Romans. In B. C. 183-179, he assisted Eumenes in his war against Pharnaces. Polybius mentions that a Roman embassy was sent to Ariarathes after the death of Antiochus IV., who died B. C. 164. Antiochis, the wife of Ariarathes, at first bore him no children, and accordingly introduced two supposititious ones, who were called Ariarathes and Holophernes. Subsequently, however, she bore her husband two daughters and a son, Mithridates, afterwards Ariarathes V., and then informed Ariarathes of the deceit she had practised upon him.
The other two were in consequence sent away from Cappadocia, one to Rome, the other to Ionia. (Liv. 37.31
; Plb. 22.24
; Appian, App. Syr. 5
; Diod. l.c.
Son of the preceding, previously called Mithridates, reigned 33 years, B. C. 163-130.
He was surnamed Philopator, and was distinguished by the excellence of his character and his cultivation of philosophy and the liberal arts.
According to Livy (42.19
), he was educated at Rome; but this account may perhaps refer to the other Ariarathes, one of the supposititious sons of the late king.
In consequence of rejecting, at the wish of the Romans, a marriage with the sister of Demetrius Soter, the latter made war upon him, and brought forward Holophernes, one of the supposititious sons of the late king, as a claimant of the throne. Ariarathes was deprived of his kingdom, and fled to Rome about B. C. 158.
He was restored by the Romans, who, however, appear to have allowed Holophernes to reign jointly with him, as is expressly stated by Appian (App. Syr. 47
), and implied by Polybius (32.20
The joint government, however, did not last long; for we find Ariarathes shortly afterwards named as sole king. In B. C. 154, Ariarathes assisted Attalus in his war against Prusias, and sent his son Demetrius in command of his forces.
He fell in B. C. 130, in the war of the Romans against Aristonicus of Pergamus.
In return for the succours which he had brought the Romans on that occasion, Lycaonia and Cilicia were added to the dominions of his family.
By his wife Laodice he had six children ; but they were all, with the exception of the youngest, killed by their mother, that she might obtain the government of the kingdom.
After she had been put to death by the people on account of her cruelty, her youngest son succeeded to the crown. (Diod. l.c., Exc.
xxiv. p. 626, ed. Wess.; Plb. 3.5
; Justin, 35.1
The youngest son of the preceding, reigned about 34 years, B. C. 130-96.
He was a child at his succession.
He married Laodice, the sister of Mithridates Eupator, king of Pontus, and was put to death by Mithridates by means of Gordius. (Justin, 37.1
; Memnon, apud Phot.
Cod. 224, p. 230a. 41, ed. Bekker.) On his death the kingdom was seized by Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, who married Laodice, the widow of the late king. But Nicomedes was coon expelled by Mithridates, who placed upon the throne,
A son of Ariarathes VI.
He was, however, also murdered by Mithridates in a short time, who now took possession of his kingdom. (Justin, 38.1
.) The Cappadocians rebelled against Mithridates, and placed upon the throne,
A second son of Ariarathes VI.; but he was speedily driven out of the kingdom by Mithridates, and shortly afterwards died a natural death.
By the death of these two sons of Ariarathes VI., the royal family was extinct. Mithridates placed upon the throne one of his own sons, who was only eight years old. Nicomedes sent an embassy to Rome to lay claim to the throne for a youth, who, he pretended, was a third son of Ariarathes VI. and Laodice. Mithridates also, with equal shamelessness, says Justin, sent an embassy to Rome to assert that the youth, whom he had placed upon the throne, was a descendant of Ariarathes V., who fell in the war against Aristonicus.
The senate, however, did not assign the kingdom to either, but granted liberty to the Cappadocians.
But as the people wished for a king, the Romans allowed them to choose whom they pleased, and their choice fell upon Ariobarzanes. (Justin, 38.1
; Strab. xii. p.540
A son of Ariobarzanes II., and brother of Ariobarzanes III. (Cic. Fam. 15.2
), reigned six years, B. C. 42-36. When Caesar had confirmed Ariobarzanes III. in this kingdom, he placed Ariarathes under his brother's government. Ariarathes succeeded to the crown after the battle of Philippi, but was deposed and put to death by Antony, who appointed Archelaus as his successor. (Appian, App. BC 5.7
; D. C. 49.32
; V. Max. 9.15
, ex. 2.)
Clinton makes this Ariarathes the son of Ariobarzanes III. (whom he calls the second); but as there were three kings of the name of Ariobarzanes, grandfather, son, and grandson [ARIOBARZANES], and Strabo (xii. p.540
) says that the family became extinct in three generations, it seems most probable, that this Ariarathes was a brother of Ariobarzanes III. Cicero (Cic. Att. 13.2
) speaks of an Ariarathes, a son of Ariobarzanes, who came to Rome in B. C. 45; but there seems no reason to believe that he was a different person from the one mentioned above, the son of Ariobarzanes II.
Respecting the kings of Cappadocia, see Clinton, F. H.
vol. iii. Appendix, 100.9.
The four coins that have been given above, have been placed under those kings to whom they are usually assigned; but it is quite uncertain to whom they really belong.
The coins of these kings bear only three surnames, ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ
, and ΦΙΛΟΜΗΤΟΡΟΣ
. On the reverse of all, Pallas is represented. (Eckhel, iii. p. 198.)