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3. The name of three kings of Cappadocia. Clinton (F. H. iii. p. 436) makes only two of this name, but inscriptions and coins seem to prove that there were three.

I. Surnamed Philoromaeus (Φιλορώμαιος) on coins (B. C. 93-63), was elected king by the Cappadocians, under the direction of the Romans, about B. C. 93. (Justin, 38.2; Strab. xii. p.540; Appian, App. Mith. 10.) He was several times expelled from his kingdom by Mithridates, and as often restored by the Romans. He seems to have been driven out of his kingdom immediately after his accession, as we find that he was restored by Sulla in B. C. 92. (Plut. Sull. 5; Liv. Epit. 70; Appian, App. Mith. 57.) He was a second time expelled about B. C. 90, and fled to Rome. He was then restored by M.' Aquillius, about B. C. 89 (Appian, App. Mith. 10, 11; Justin, 38.3), but was expelled a third time in B. C. 88. In this year war was declared between the Romans and Mithridates ; and Ariobarzanes was deprived of his kingdom till the peace in B. C. 84, when he again obtained it from Sulla, and was established in it by Curio. (Plut. Sull. 22, 24; Dio Cass. Fragm. 173, ed. Reim.; Appian, App. Mith. 60.) Ariobarzanes appears to have retained possession of Cappadocia, though frequently harassed by Mithridates, till B. C. 66, when Mithridates seized it after the departure of Lucullus and before the arrival of Pompey. (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 2, 5.) He was. however, restored by Pompey, who also increased his dominions. Soon after this, probably about B. C. 63, he resigned the kingdom to his son. (Appian, App. Mith. 105, 114, B. C. 1.103; Val.Max. 5.7.2.) We learn from a Greek inscription quoted by Eckhel (iii. p. 199), that the name of his wife was Athenais, and that their son was Philopator. The inscription on the coin from which the annexed drawing was made, is indistinct and partly effaced: it should be ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΟΒΑΡΖΑΝΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΩΜΑΙΟΥ. Pallas is represented holding a small statue of Victory in her right hand.

II. Surnamed Philopator (Φιλοπάτωρ), according to coins, succeeded his father B. C. 63. The time of his death is not known; but it must have been previous to B. C. 51, in which year his son was reigning. He appears to have been assassinated, as Cicero (Cic. Fam. 15.2) reminds the son of the fate of his father. Cicero also mentions this Ariobarzanes in one of his orations. (De Prov. Cons. 4.) It appears, from an inscription, that his wife, as well as his father's, was named Athenais.

III. Surnamed Eusebes and Philoromaeus (Εὐσεβὴς καὶ Φιλορώμαιος), according to Cicero (Cic. Fam. 15.2) and coins, succeeded his father not long before B. C. 51. (Cic. l.c.) While Cicero was in Cilicia, he protected Ariobarzanes from a conpiracy which was formed against him, and established him in his kingdom. (Ad Fam. 2.17, 15.2, 4, 5, ad Att. 5.20; Plut. Cic. 36.) It appears from Cicero that Ariobarzanes was very poor, and that he owed Pompey and M. Brutus large sums of money. (Ad Att. 6.1-3.) In the war between Caesar and Pompey, he came to the assistance of the latter with five hundred horsemen. (Caes. Civ. 3.4; Flor. 4.2.) Caesar, however, forgave him, and enlarged his territories. HIe also protected him against the attacks of Pharnaces, king of Pontus. (D. C. 41.63, 42.48; Hirt. Bell. Alex. 34, &c.) He was slain in B. C. 42 by Cassius, because he was plotting against him in Asia. (D. C. 47.33; Appian, App. BC 4.63.) On the annexed coin of Ariobarzanes the inscription is ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΟΒΑΡΖΑΝΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΦΙΛΟΡΩΜΑΙΟΥ. (Eckhel, iii. p. 200.)

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