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Carbo

7. Cn. Papirius Cn. F. C. N. CARBO, a son of No. 3 and cousin of No. 6, occurs in history for the first time in B. C. 92, when the consul Appius Claudius Pulcher made a report to the senate about his seditious proceedings. (Cic. De Legg. 3.19.) He was one of the leaders of the Marian party, and in B. C. 87, when C. Marius returned from Africa, he commanded one of the four armies with which Rome was blockaded. In B. C. 86, when L. Valerius Flaccus, the successor of Marius in his seventh consulship, was killed in Asia, Carbo was chosen by Cinna for his colleague for B. C. 85. These two consuls, who felt alarmed at the reports of Sulla's return, sent persons into all parts of Italy to raise money, soldiers, and provisions, for the anticipated war, and they endeavoured to strengthen their party, especially by the new citizens, whose rights, they said, were in danger, and on whose behalf they pretended to exert themselves. The fleet also was restored to guard the coasts of Italy, and in short nothing was neglected to make a vigorous stand against Sulla. When the latter wrote to the senate from Greece, the senate endeavored to stop the proceedings of the consuls until an answer from Sulla had arrived. The consuls declared themselves ready to obey the commands of the senate, but no sooner had the ambassadors to Sulla quitted Rome, than Cinna and Carbo declared themselves consuls for the year following, that they might not be obliged to go to Rome to hold the comitia for the elections. Legions upon legions were raised and transported across the Adriatic to oppose Sulla; but great numbers of the soldiers began to be discontented and refused fighting against their fellow-citizens. A mutiny broke out, and Cinna was murdered by his own soldiers. Carbo now returned to Italy with the troops which had already been carried across the Adriatic, but he did not venture to go to Rome, although the tribunes urged him to come in order that a successor to Cinna might be elected. At length, however, Carbo returned to Rome, but the attempts at holding the comitia were frustrated by prodigies, and Carbo remained sole consul for the rest of the year.

In B. C. 83, Sulla arrived in Italy. Carbo, who was now proconsul of Gaul, hastened to Rome, and there caused a decree to be made, which declared Metellus and all the senators who supported Sulla, to be enemies of the republic. About the same time the capitol was burnt down, and there was some suspicion of Carbo having set it on fire. While Sulla and his partizans were carrying on the war in various parts of Italy, Carbo was elected consul a third time for the year B. C. 82, together with C. Marius, the younger. Carbo's army was in Cisalpine Gaul, and in the spring of 82 his legate, C. Carrinas, fought a severely contested battle with Metellus, and was put to flight. Carbo himself, however, pursued Metellus, and kept him in a position in which he was unable to do any thing; hearing of the misfortunes of his colleague Marius at Praeneste, he led his troops back to Ariminum, whither he was followed by Pompey. In the mean time Metellus gained another victory over an army of Carbo. Sulla, after entering Rome and making sonic of the most necessary arrangements, marched out himself against Carbo. In an cngagement on the river Glanis, several of the Spaniards, who had joined his army a little while before, deserted to Sulla, and Carbo, either to avenge himself on those who remained with him, or to set a fearful example, ordered all of them to be put to death. At length a great battle was fought at Clusium betweth Carbo and Sulla: it lasted for a whole day, but the victory was not decided. Pompey and Crassus were engaged against Carrinas in the neighbourhood of Spoletium, and when Carbo sent out an army to his relief, Sulla, who was informed of the route which this army took. attacked it from an ambuscade and killed nearly 2000 men. Carrinas himself however escaped. Marcius, who was sent by Carbo to the relief of Praeneste, was likewise attacked from an ambuscade by Pompey, and lost many of his men. His soldiers, who considered him to be the cause of their defeat, deserted him, with the exception of a few cohorts, with which he returned to Carbo. Shortly after Carbo and Norbanus made an attack upon the camp of Metellus near Faventia, but time and place were unfavourable to them, and they were defeated: about 10,000 of their men were slain, and 6000 deserted to Metellus, so that Carbo was obliged to withdraw to Arretium with about 1000 men.

The desertion and treachery in the party, which had hitherto supported the cause of Marius, increased every day: Norbanus despairing of success fled to Rhodes, where he put an end to his life soon afterwards; and when Carbo found that the relief of Praeneste, whither he had sent two legions under Damasippus, was hopeless, he too resolved to quit Italy, although he had still large forces at his command, and his generals, Carrinas, Mareius, and Damasippus, were continuing the war in Italy. Carbon tied to Africa. After his party in Italy had been completely defeated, Pempey was sent against the remains of it in Sicily, whither Carbo then repaired. From thence he went to the island of Cossyra, where he was taken prisoner by the emissaries of Pompey. His companions were put to death at once, but Carbo himself was brought in chains before Pompey at Lilybaeum, and after a bitter invective against him, Pompey had him executed and sent his head to Sulla, B. C. 82. (Appian, App. BC 1.69-96; Liv. Epit. 79, 83, 88, 89; Plut. Sull. 22, &c., Pomp. 10, &c.; Cic. c. Verr. 1.4, 13; Pseudo-Ascon. in Verr. p. 129, ed. Orelli; Cic. Fam. 9.21 ; Eutrop. 5.8, 9; Oros. 5.20; Zonar. 10.1.)

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