9. L. Julius
Sex. N. Caesar, L. F., called erroneously by Appian, Sex. Julius Caesar, son of No. 8, was consul, B. C. 90, with P. Rutilius Lupus, when the Social war broke out. His legates in this war were Sulla, Crassus, P. Lentulus, T. Didius, and M. Marcellus.
He commenced the campaign by attacking the Samnites, but was defeated by their general, Vettius Cato, and fled to Aesernia, which still remained faithful to the Romans. Having, however,received a reinforcement of Gallic and Numidian auxiliaries, he was soon able to face the enemy again, and pitched his camp near Acerrae in Campania, which was besieged by the enemy. Here a great number of the Numidians deserted, and Caesar, suspecting the fidelity of the remainder, sent them back to Africa. Encouraged by this defection, Papius Motulus, the general of the enemy, proceeded to attack Caesar's camp, but was repulsed with a loss of 6000 men.
This victory caused great joy at Rome; and the citizens laid aside the military cloaks (saga
), which they had assumed at the beginning of the war.
It was not followed, however, by any important results : on the contrary, Caesar withdrew from Acerrae almost immediately afterwards, without having relieved the town. Meantime, the other consul, Rutilius Lupus, had been defeated and slain in battle by Vettius Cato; and Caesar himself, while marching to Acerrae to make another attempt to raise the siege of the town, was defeated with great loss by Marius Egnatius. (Appian, App. BC 1.40
; Vell. 2.15
; Liv. Epit. 73
; Plin. Nat. 2.29. s. 30
; Obsequ. 100.115; Cic. de Div.
1.2, pro Font.
15, pro Planc.
21; Flor. 3.18.12
; Oros. 5.18
These disasters, the fear of a war with Mithridates, and apprehension of a revolt of all the allies, induced Caesar to bring forward a law for granting the citizenship to the Latins and the allies which had remained faithful. (Lex Julia de Civitate.
) It appears, however, to have contained a provision, giving each allied state the opportunity of accepting what was offered them; and many preferred their original condition as federate states to incurring the obligations and responsibilities of Roman citizens. (Cic. pro Balb.
8; Vell. 2.16
; Gel. 4.4
In the following year, B. C. 89, Caesar's command was prolonged.
He gained a considerable victory over the enemy, and afterwards proceeded to besiege Asculum, before which he died of disease, according to the statement of Appian. (BC 1.48
This, however, is clearly a mistake : he probably was obliged to leave the army in consequence of serious illness, and was succeeded in the command by C. Baebius.
He was censor in the same year with P. Licinius Crassus (Cic. pro Arch.
5; Plin. Nat. 13.3. s. 5
, 14.14. s. 16; Festus, s. v. Referri
), and was engaged in carrying into effect his own law and that of Silvanus and Carbo, passed in this year, for conferring the citizenship upon some of the other Italian allies.
These citizens were enrolled in eight or ten new tribes, which were to vote after the thirty-five old ones. (Appian, App. BC 1.49
; Vell. 2.20
On the breaking out of the civil war in B. C. 87, L. Caesar and his brother Caius, who were opposed to Marius and Cinna, were killed by Fimbria. (Appian, App. BC 1.72
; Flor. 3.21.14
; Ascon. in Scaur.
p. 24, ed. Orelli; V. Max. 9.2.2
; Cic. de Orat. 3.3