4. CALLIAS II., son of No. 3, was present in his priestly dress at the battle of Marathon; and the story runs that, on the rout of the enemy, a Persian, claiming his protection, pointed out to him a treasure buried in a pit, and that he slew the man and appropriated the money. Hence the surname λακκόπλουτος
5; Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub.
65; Hesych. and Suid. s. v. λακκόπλουτος
), which, however, we may perhaps rather regard as having itself suggested the tale, and as having been originally, like βαθύπλουτος
, expressive of the extent of the family's wealth. (Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens,
b. iv. ch. 3.) His enemies certainly were sufficiently malignant, if not powerful; for Plutarch (Aristeid.
25), on the authority of Aeschines the Socratic, speaks of a capital prosecution instituted against him on extremely weak grounds. Aristeides, who was his cousin, was a witness on the trial, which must therefore have tatken place before B. C. 468, the probable date of Aristeides' death. In Herodotus (7.151
) Callias is mentioned as ambassador from Athens to Artaxerxes; and this statement we might identify with that of Diodorus, who ascribes to the victories of Cimon, through the negotiation of Callias, B. C. 449, a peace with Persia on terms most humiliating to the latter, were it not that extreme suspicion rests on the whole account of the treaty in question. (Paus. 1.8
; Diod. 12.4
; Wesselling, ad loc.; Mitford's Greece,
ch. xi. sec. 3, note 11; Thirlwall's Greece,
vol. iii. pp. 37, 38, and the authorities there referred to; Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens,
b. iii. ch. 12, b. iv. ch. 3.) Be this as it may, he did not escape impeachment after his return on the charge of having taken bribes, and was condemned to a fine of 50 talents, more than 12,000l.,
being a fourth of his whole property. (Dem. de Fals. Leg.
p. 428; Lys. pro Aristoph. Bon.