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Eudo'cia Augusta

8. Of MACREMBOLIS, wife of the emperors Constantine XI. (Ducas) and Romanus IV. (Diogenes). She was married to Constantine while he was yet in a private station, and bore him two sons, Michael and Andronicus, before his accession in A. D. 1059, and one son, Constantine. born afterwards; they had also two daughters, Theodora and Zoe. On the accession of Constantine she received the title of Augusta and on his death, A. D. 1067, he bequeathed the empire to her and to their three sons, Michael VII. (Parapinaces), Andronicus I., and Constantine XII. (Porphyrogenitus). He bound Eudocia by an oath not to marry again. Eudocia had in fact the management of the government, the children being all young. Perceiving that the protection of the eastern frontier, which was threatened with invasion, required a stronger hand, she married Romanus IV. (Diogenes). Romanus, who was eminent for his fine figure, strength, and warlike qualities, had, on the death of Constantine XI., prepared to seize the throne, but was prevented by Eudocia, who threw him into prison, and exiled him; but, either for reasons of state, or from affection, soon recalled him, and raised him to the command of the army. Her oath not to marry had been given in writing, and committed to the custody of the patriarch of Constantinople; but by a trick she recovered it, and, within eight months after her husband's death (A. D. 1068), married Romanus, and raised him to be colleague in the empire with herself and her sons. She had hoped to govern him, but was disappointed, and his assertion of his own will led to quarrels between them. During the captivity of Ronmanus, Joannes or John Ducas, brother of the late Constantine, who had been invested with the dignity of Caesar, declared Michael Parapinaces sole emperor, and banished Eudocia to a convent which she had herself built on the shore of the Propontis. On the death of Diogenes, who on his release had fallen into the hands of Andronicus, the eldest son of Joannes Ducas, and died from the cruel usage he received, A. D. 1071 [ROMANUS IV. (DIOGENES)], Eudocia buried her unhappy husband with great splendour. She appears to have long survived this event. (Zonaras, Annales, vol. iii. pp. 218-226, ed. Basil, 1557; Michael Glycas, Annales, pars iv. p. 606, &c., ed. Bonn.)


Works


Dictionary of History and Mythology

Eudocia compiled a dictionary of history and mythology, which she called Ἰωνιά, i. e. Collection or bed of Violets. It was printed for the first time by Villoison, in his Anecdota Graeca, 2 vols. 4to. Venice, 1781. It is prefaced by an address to her husband Romanus Diogenes, in which she describes the work as " a collection of genealogies of gods, heroes, and heroines, of their metamorphoses, and of the fables and stories respecting them found in the ancients; containing also notices of various philosophers." The sources from which the work was compiled are in a great degree the same as those used in the Lexicon of Suidas. The sources are examined and described by Meineke in his Observationes in Eudociae Violetum, in the fifth and sixth volumes of the Bibliothek der allen Litteratur und Kunst, Göttingen, 1789.

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