), THEODO'RUS and THEO'PHANES, two ecclesiastical writers, commemorated in the Greek church, in the office for the 27th Dec. as saints and confessors. They were the sons of pious parents, and natives of Jerusalem. Theodore, who was some years older than his brother, was distinguished, when a boy, by the seriousness of'his deportment and the excellence of his character.
He was educated in the monastery of St. Saba, near Jerusalem, and, according to his biographer, received ordination from the bishop of Sion, that is, as we understand it, the patriarch of Jerusalem. Theophanes is said to have emulated the devotion of his brother, but we have no account of his education or ordination.
The iconoclastic controversy was raging, and the brothers were sent by the patriarch of Jerusalem to remonstrate with the emperor Leo V., the Armenian, a zealous iconoclast, who reigned from A. D. 813 to 820.
The accomplishments and boldness of Theodore excited the emperor's admiration, but the pertinacious resistance of the brothers to his proceedings provoked his anger, and they were scourged, and banished from Constantinople.
After the murder of Leo V., they were at first allowed by Michael II. the Stammerer (who reigned from A. D. 820 to 829) to return to that city, but were shortly afterwards again banished. Under Theophilus, the son of Michael (who reigned from A. D. 829 to 842), they were still more severely treated.
In addition to a third banishment from Constantinople, or rather imprisonment (we do not find when they had returned from their second exile), they had a long inscription of opprobrious iambic verses carved on their faces; the verses are given by the author of the life of Theodore, as well as by the continnator of Theophanes, by Symeon Magister, by George the Monk, and by Cedrenus. From this punishment they received the surname of Grapti
), "Inscribed." Their place of exile was Apameia, in Bithynia, on the shore of the Propontis, according to the biographer of Theodore, or the harbour of Carta, according to Symeon Magister. Here the exiles, or rather prisoners, were enabled, by means of a faithful fisherman, to communicate with Methodius, afterwards patriarch of Constantinople, who was shut up in a sepulchre near the place of their confinement. Theodore died in exile; but Theophanes survived, and, on the restoration of images under the empress Theodora, widow of Theophilus, and guardian of her son, Michael III., became archbishop of Nicaea, in Bithynia. Of the death of Theophanes we have no account.
The continuator of Theophanes calls Theophanes Graptus bishop of Smyrna; and he and Cedrens make Theodore to have survived until the administration of the empress Theodora: but these statements are at variance with better authorities.
Works of Theodore
giving an account of his own and his brother's sufferings.
This letter is incorporated in the life of Theodore referred to below.
The whole of this appears to be extant in MS.
An extract from it, giving an account of the patriarch's disputation with Leo the Armenian, is printed by Combefis, in his Originum Rerumque CPolitanarum Manipulus.
Of which also Combefis gives an extract.
Of which some extracts, preserved in the Synopsis Dogmatum
of Gregorius Hieromonachus, are quoted by Allatius in his De Purgatorio,
Works of Theophanes Graptus
Theophanes Graptus is chiefly known as a Melodus, or hymn writer. His known works are,
in commemoration of his brother Theodore, embodied in the Menaea
of the Greek church in the service for the 27th Dec., the day on which the Grapti are honoured.
It is given by Combefis as above.
employed in the matin service of the Greek church for the first Sunday in Lent.
It is given, with a Latin version, by Baronius, Annales ad Ann. 842, No. xxviii.
These hymns, though not in verse, are acrostich, the first letters of the successive paragraphs forming a sentence, which serves as a motto to the piece.
Mentioned by Fabricius.
Vita Theodori Grapti,
by a contemporary writer, printed in the Orig. Rerumque CPolit. Manip.
of Combefis; Theophanes Continuatus, iii. De Theophilo Michaelis Fil.
14, iv.; De Michaele Theophili Fil.
11; Symeon Mag. De Theophil.
100.22, 23, De Michaele et Theodora,
100.5; Georg. Monach. De Theophilo,
100.25; Cedrenus, vol. i. p. 799, vol. ii. pp. 114-117, 149, 150, ed. Bonn.; Fabric. Bibl. Gr.
vol. viii. p. 84, vol. x. pp. 332, 395, vol. xi. pp. 84, 220, 718.