Herodia'nus, Ae'lius（Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός), one of the most celebrated grammarians of antiquity. He was the son of Apollonius Dyscolus [APOLLONIUS], and was born at Alexandria. From that place he appears to have removed to Rome, where he gained the favour of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, to whom he dedicated his work on prosody. No further biographical particulars are known respecting him.
WorksThe estimation in which he was held by subsequent grammarians was very great. Priscian styles him maximus auctor artis grammaticae. He was a very voluminous writer; but to give any thing like a correct list of his works (of which we possess only a few fragmentary portions) is very difficult; as in numerous instances it is impossible to determine whether the titles given by writers who quoted or epitomised his works were the titles of distinct treatises, or only of portions of some of his larger works. The following appear to have been distinct works :--
1. Περὶ ὈρθογραφίαςΠερὶ Ὀρθολραφίας, in three books, treating of ποσότης, ποιότης, and σύνταξις.
Περὶ Συντάξεως Στοιχείων.
Περὶ Παθῶν, on the changes undergone by syllables and letters.
4. ΣυμπόδιονΣυμπόδιον, written during a residence at Puteoli.
5. Περὶ Γάμου καὶ ΣυμβιώσεωςΠερὶ Γάμου καὶ Συμβιώσεως.
6. ΠροτάσειςΠροτάσεις, of which we know something through the Λίσεις Προτάσεων τῶν Ἡρωδιανοῖ, written by the grammarian Orus.
7. ὈνοματικάὈνοματικά. All the above works have entirely perished. The passages where they are quoted, with the names of some other treatises of less note, will be found in Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 282, &c.).
8. ἘπιμερισμοίἘπιμερισμοί. This work was devoted to the explanation of difficult, obscure, and doubtful words, and of peculiar forms found in Homer.
EditionsA meagre compilation from this highly valuable work was published from Parisian MSS. by J. F. Boissonade, London, 1819. Another abstract, which appears to give a better idea of the original work, is the Ἐπιμερισμοί, published in Cramer's Anecdota Gr. Oxon. vol. i. Several important quotations from this work are also found scattered in different parts of the scholia on Homer. The Σχηματισμοὶ Ὁμηρικοί, appended by Sturz to his edition of the Etymologicum Gudianum, appears also to belong to the Ἐπιμερισμοί of Herodianus. An Ὁμηρική Προσῳδία, of which we find mention, may also have been a portion of it; but, like the Ἀττικὴ Προσῳδία, and Ἀνόμαλος Προσῳδία (neither of which is extant), more probably belonged to the great work on prosody.
Ἡ καθ᾽ Ὅλου, or Καθολικὴ Προσῳδία (called also Μεγάλη Προσῳδία), in twenty books. This work also was held in great repute by the successors of Herodianus. It seems to have embraced not merely prosody, but most of those subjects now included in the etymological portion of grammar. An abstract of it was made by the grammarian Aristodemus, which, like the original work has perished. Another epitome is extant in a MS. in the Bodleian library (Cod. Barocc. clxxix.), and an index of the subjects of the different books in Cod. Matrit. xxxvii. The treatise Περὶ Τόνων, published under the name of Arcadius, but which was compiled by a later grammarian, Theodosius of Byzantium, seems also to be an extract from the Προσῳδία of Herodianus.
Περὶ Μονήρους Λέξεως, on monosyllabic words.