72. Of JERUSALEM (1), was originally a monk ; but little is known of his history till A. D. 386, when he was elected to succeed Cyril [CYRILLUS, St. of JERUSALEM] as bishop of Jerusalem.
He was then not much more than thirty years of age. (Hieron. Epist.
82.8). Some speak of him as patriarch, but Jerusalem was not elevated to the dignity of a patriarchate until the following century. Joannes was a man of insignificant personal appcarance (Hieron. Lib. contra Joan.
100.10), and Jerome, who was disposed to disparage him, thought him a man of small attainments : he acknowledges, however, that others gave him credit for eloquence, talent, and learning (Hieron. Lib. contra Joan.
100.4); and Theodoret calls him a man worthy of admiration (H. E.
He was acquainted, at least in some degree, with the Hebrew and Syriac languages, but it is doubtful if he was acquainted with Latin.
He is said to have been at one period an Arian, or to have sided with the Arians when they were in the ascendant under the emperor Valens (Hieron. Lib. contra ? Joan.
100.4, 8): Jerome hints that there were other reports current to his discredit, but as he does not state what were the charges against him, there is some difficulty in judging whether they had any other origin than the malice of his opponents.
For eight years after his appointment to the bishopric, he was on friendly terms with Jerome, who was then living a monastic life in Bethlehem or its neighbourhood : but towards the close of that period, strife was stirred up by Epiphanius of Constantia (or Salamis) in Cyprus, who came to Palestine to ascertain the truth of a report which had reached him, that the obnoxious sentiments of Origen were gaining ground under the patronage of Joannes [EPIPHANIUS].
The violence with which Epiphanius preached against Origenism, and, by implication, against Joannes, provoked at first merely contempt for what Joannes regarded as the revilings of a dotard; and Joannes contented himself with sending his archdeacon to advise him to leave off such preaching (Hieron. Lib. contra Joan.
The matter, however, produced serious results ; for Epiphanius, failing to induce Joannes pointedly to condemn Origenism, roused against him the fierce and intolerant spirit of Jerome and the other solitaries of Bethlehem : and in his ardour procceded to the irregular step of ordaining Paulinianus, the younger brother of Jerome, as deacon and presbyter.
The ordination, however, took place, not in the diocese of Jerusalem, but in the adjacent one of Eleutheropolis.
This irregular proceeding either roused Joannes, or served him as a pretext for anger, and he exclaimed against Epiphanius, and resorted to severe measures for quelling the contumacious spirit of the monks of Bethlehem ; and even endeavoured to procure the banishment of Jerome. His opponents, however, were not to be daunted; Epiphanius wrote a letter to Joannes (about A. D. 394), which Jerome translated into Latin, affirming that the real cause of the difference was the leaning of Joannes to Origenism, justifying the ordination of Paulinian, and solemnly warning Joannes against that heresy.
The letter appears among the Epistolae
of Jerome (No. 60 in the older editions, No. 110 in the edit. of Martianay, No. 51 in the edition of Vallarsi). Joannes did not reply to Epiphanius, but addressed an apologetic letter to Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, who, with considerable difficulty, effected a reconciliation between Joannes and Jerome, perhaps about A. D. 400. Rufinus had in this quarrel been the supporter of Joannes, who afterwards requited his services by writing to Pope Anastasius in his behalf, when Rufinus, then in Italy, was accused of heresy.
The reply of Anastasius is given in the Concilia
(vol. ii. col. 1194, ed. Labbe, vol. iii. col. 943, ed. Mansi).
Whether Joannes really cherished opinions at variance with the orthodoxy of that time, or only exercised toward those who held them a forbearance and liberality which drew suspicion on himself ; he was again involved in squabbles with the supporters of orthodox views.
He was charged with favouring Pelagius, who was then in Palestine, and who was accused of heresy in the councils of Jerusalem and Diospolis (A. D. 415), but was in the latter council acquitted of the charge, and restored to the communion of the church.
The followers of Pelagius are represented as acting with great violence against Jerome. Jerome applied for the support and countenance of Pope Innocent I. (A. D. 402-417), who accordingly wrote to Joannes (Innocentii Epistol.
3, apud Labbe, Concilia,
vol. ii. col. 1316; Mansi, Council.
vol. iii. col. 1125), with whom Augnustin also remonstrated (Epistola,
252, ed. vett., 179, ed. Caillau, Paris, 1842) on the favour which he showed to Pelagius. Augustin's letter is, however, respectful and courteous, and he has elsewhere recognised Joannes as connected with himself in the unity of the faith (Contra Litt. Petilliani,
In the struggle of Joannes of Constantinople, better kuown as Chrysostom, against his enemies, Joannes of Jerusalem had taken his part, and Chrysostom in his exile (A. D. 404) acknowledged his kindness in a letter still extant (Chrysostom, Epist.
88, Opera, vol. iii. p. 640, ed. Bened. lma. p. 771, ed. 2da. Paris, 1838). Joannes died A. D. 416 or 417. (Hieronymus, Epistolae,
60, 61, 62. ed. Vet. 39, 110, ed. Benedictin. 51, 82, and Liber Contra Joan. Ierosolymit.
ed. Vallarsi, to which the references in the course of the article have been made; Chrysostom. Augustin. ll. cc.
; Socrates, H. E.
5.15; Sozomen. H. E.
7.14; Tillemont, Mémoires,
vol. xii. passim; Cave, Hist. Litt.
vol. i. p. 281; Fleury, Histoire Ecclésiastique,
vol. iv. p. 634. &c.,vol. v. p. 126, 414, &100.447; Baronius, Annales,
ad ann. 386, lxvi.; 391, xlv.; 392, xlii.--xlvii.; 393, ii.--xxi.; 399, xxxviii.; 402, xxvi.--xxx.; 415, xix.--xxiv.; 416, xxxi. xxxii. xxxv.; Pagi, Critice in Baron. Annales,
ann. 416, xxxv.; Ceillier, Auteurs Sacrés,
vol. x. p. 87, &c.; Le Quien, Oriens Christianus,
vol. iii. col. 161.)
Joannes wrote, according to Gennadius (De Viris Illustr.
c. 30), Adversus Obtrectatores sui Studii Liber,
in which he showed that he rather admired the ability than followed the opinion of Origen. Fabricius and Ceillier think, and with apparent reason, that this work, which is lost, was the apologetic letter addressed by Joannes to Theophilus of Alexandria.
No other work of Joannes is noticed by the ancients: but in the seventeenth century two huge volumes appeared, entitled, Joannis Nepotis Sylcani, Hierosolym. Episcopi XLIV. Opera omnia quae hactenus incognita, reperiri potuerunt : in unum collecta, suoque Auctori et Auctoritati tribus Vindiciarum libris asserta, per A. R. P. Petrum Wastelium,
fol. Brussels, 1643. The Vindiciae
occupied the second volume.
The works profess to be translated from the Greek, and are as follows:
This work is mentioned by Trithernius (apud Fabric. Bibl. Gr.
vol. x. p. 526) as " Volumen insigne de principio et profectu ordinis Carmelitici," and is ascribed by him to a later Joannes, patriarch of Jerusalem in the eighth century.
It is contained in several editions of the Bibliotheca Patrum
(in which work indeed it seems to have been first published, vol. ix. Paris, fol. 1589), and in the works of Thomas a Jesu, the Carmelite (vol. i. p. 416, &c. fol. Colon. 1684). Its origin has been repeatedly discussed; and it is generally admitted, except by the Carmelites, to be the production of a Latin writer, and of much later date than our Joannes.
A commentary on the first three chapters of the book of Job, often printed in Latin among the works of Origen, but supposed to belong neither to him nor to Joannes.
An imperfect commentary on the Gospel of Matthew, usually printed under the title of Opus imperfectum in Matthaeum,
among the works of Chrysostom, in the Latin or Graeco-Latin editions of that father; but supposed to be the work of some Arian or Anomoean, about the end of the sixth, or in the seventh century.
Cited by Thomas Aquinas (Catena Aurea ad Exang.
) as a work of Chrysostom.
Extant under the name of Chrysostom, partly in the editions of his works, partly in the Latin version of a Greek Catena in Lucam published by Corderius, fol. Antwerp, 1628
; and partly in the Catena Aurea of Thomas Aquinas.
almost all of them among those published in the works of Chrysostom.
There is no good reason for ascribing any of these works to Joannes; nor are they, in fact, ascribed to him, except by the Carmelites.
Fabric. Bibl. Gr.
vol. ix. p. 299, vol. x. p. 525, &c. ; Cave, Hist. Litt.
vol. i. p. 281, &c.; Dupin, Nonxelle Bibliothèque des Auteurs Ecclésiastiques,
vol. iii. p. 87, ed. Paris, 1690.