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Lycurgus

*Lukou=rgos), an Attic orator, was born at Athens about B. C. 396, and was the son of Lycophron, who belonged to the noble family of the Eteobutadae. (Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 841; Suidas, s. v. Λυκ̀οῦργος; Phot. Bibl. Cod. 268, p. 496, &c.) In his early life he devoted himself to the study of philosophy in the school of Plato, but afterwards became one of the disciples of Isocrates, and entered upon public life at a comparatively early age. He was appointed three successive times to the office of ταμίας τῆς κοινῆς προσόδου, i. e. manager of the public revenue, and held his office each time for five years, beginning with B. S. 337. The conscientiousness with which he discharged the duties of this office enabled him to raise the public revenue to the sum of 1200 talents. This, as well as the unwearied activity with which he laboured both for increasing the security and splendour of the city of Athens, gained for him the universal confidence of the people to such a degree, that when Alexander the Great demanded, among the other opponents of the Macedonian interest, the surrender of Lycurgus also, who had, in conjunction with Demosthenes, exerted himself against the intrigues of Macedonia even as early as the reign of Philip, the people of Athens clung to him, and boldly refused to deliver him up. (Plut. Phot. ll. cc.) He was further entrusted with the superintendence (φυλακή) of the city and the keeping of public discipline; and the severity with which he watched over the conduct of the citizens became almost proverbial. (Cic. Att. 1.13; Plut. Flam. 12; Amm. Marc. 22.9, 30.8.) He had a noble taste for every thing that was beautiful and grand, as he showed by the buildings he erected or completed, both for the use of the citizens and the ornament of the city. His integrity was so great, that even private persons deposited with him large sums of money, which they wished to be kept in safety. He was also the author of several legislative enactments, of which he enforced the strictest observance. One of his laws forbade women to ride in chariots at the celebration of the mysteries; and when his own wife transgressed this law, she was fined (Aelian, Ael. VH 13.24); another ordained that bronze statues should be erected to Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, that copies of their tragedies should be made and preserved in the public archives. The Lives of the Ten Orators ascribed to Plutarch (p. 842, &c.) are full of anecdotes and characteristic features of Lycurgus, from which we must infer that he was one of the noblest specimens of old Attic virtue, and a worthy contemporary of Demosthenes. He often appeared as a successful accuser in the Athenian courts, but he himself was as often accused by others, though he always, and even in the last days of his life, succeeded in silencing his enemies. Thus we know that he was attacked by Philinus (Harpocrat. s. v. θεωρικά), Deinarchus (Dionys. Dinarch. 10), Aristogeiton, Menesaechmus, and others. He died while holding the office of ἐπιστατής of the theatre of Dionysus, in B. C. 323. A fragment of an inscription, containing the account which he rendered to the state of his administration of the finances, is still extant. At his death he left behind three sons, by his wife Callisto, who were severely persecuted by Menesaechmus and Thrasycles, but were defended by Hyperides and Democles. (Plut. 1. c. p. 842, &c.) Among the honours which were conferred upon him, we may mention, that the archon Anaxicrates ordered a bronze statue to be erected to him in the Cerameicus, and that he and his eldest son should be entertained in the prytaneium at the public expense.


Works


Orations attributed to Lycurgus in antiquity

The ancients mention fifteen orations of Lycurgus as extant in their days (Plut. l.c. p. 843; Phot. l.c. p. 496b), but we know the titles of at least twenty. (Westermann, Gesch. d. Griech. Beredt., Beilage vi. p. 296.)

With the exception, however, of one entire oration against Leocrates, and some fragments of others, all the rest are lost, so that our knowledge of his skill and style as an orator is very incomplete. Dionysius and other ancient critics draw particular attention to the ethical tendency of his oraticns, but they censure the harshness of his metaphors, the inaccuracy in the arrangement of his subject, and his frequent digressions. His style is noble and grand, but neither elegant nor pleasing. (Dionys. Vet. Script. cens. 5.3; Hermogen. De Form. Orat. ii. p. 500; Dion Chrysost. Or. xviii. p. 256, ed. Mor.) His works seem to have been commented upon by Didymus of Alexandria. (Harpocrat. s. vv. πέλανος, προκωνια, στρωτήρ.)


Ἑλένης ἐγκώμιον and Εὐρυβάτου ψόγος

Theon (Progymn. pp. 71, 77) mentions two declamations, Ἑλένης ἐγκώμιον and Εὐρυβάτου ψόγος, as the works of Lycurgus; but this Lycurgus, if the name be correct, must be a different personage from the Attic orator.


Against Leocrates

The oration against Leocrates was delivered in B. C. 330 (Aeschin. ad v. Ctesiph. § 93).

Editions

The Against Leocrates is printed in the various collections of the Attic orators by Aldus, Stephens, Gruter, Reiske, Dukas, Bekker, Baiter, and Sauppe.

Among the separate editions, the following deserve to be mentioned--that of J. Taylor (Cambridge, 1743, 8vo., where it is printed together with Demosthenes' speech against Meidias), C. F. Heinrich (Bonn, 1821, 8vo.), G. Pinzger (Leipzig, 1824, 8vo., with a learned introduction, notes, and a German translation), A. G. Becker (Magdeburg, 1821, 8vo.)

The best editions are those of Baiter and Sauppe (Turici, 1834, 8vo.), and E. Maetzner (Berlin, 1836, 8vo.).


Further Information

Compare G. A. Blume, Narratio de Lycurgo Oratore, Potsdam, 11134, 4to.; A. F. Nissen, De Lycurgi Oratoris Vita et Rebus Gestis Dissertatio, Kiel, 1833, 8vo.

[L.S]

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