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10. EREMITA or ANACHORETA (Ἀναχωρητής, or ASCETA ( Ἀσκητής), or MONACHUS (Μοναχος), the MONK. Palladius in his Historia Lausiaca, 100.21, and, according to the Greek text, as printed in the Biblioth. Patrum (vol. xiii. fol. Paris, 1654) in several passages of 100.20, has recorded some anecdotes, of sufficiently marvellous character, of Marcus, an eminent Egyptian ascetic, who lived to a hundred years, and with whom Palladius had conversed.

This Marcus is noticed also by Sozomen (H. E. 6.29). Palladius, however, does not ascribe to this Marcus any writings; nor should he be confounded, as he is even by Cave and Fabricius, as well as by others, with Marcus, " the much renowned ascetic," ( πολυθρύλλητος ἀσκηρής, Niceph. Callist. H. E. 14.30, 54), the disciple of Chrysostom, and the contemporary of Nilus and Isidore of Pelusium: for this latter Marcus must have been many years younger than the ascetic of Palladius. It is to the disciple of Chrysostom that the works extant, under the name of " Marcus Eremita," are to be ascribed; as appears from the express testimony of Nicephorus Callisti.


Nicephorus Callisti had met with the following works:-eight treatises (λόγοι ὀκτὼ), "equal to the number of the universal passions ;"and thirty-two others, describing the whole discipline of an ascetic life. Other works of Marcus must have been extant at that time, but Nicephorus does not mention them: the above were the only ones that had come into his hands.

The Eight Treatises and
Against the Melchizedekians

The eight treatises appear to have been originally distinct, but had been collected into one volume (βιβλίον), and are so described by Photius (Bibl. cod. 200), to whose copy was subjoined a ninth treatise or book, written against the Melchizedekians (κατὰ Μελχιζεδεκιτῶν), which showed, says Photius (according to our rendering of a disputed passage), that the writer was no less obnoxious to the charge of heresy than the parties against whom it was written. Photius remarks that the arrangement of the works was different in different copies.


The last four works are arranged in a different order from that of Photius.

Latin Edition

A Latin version by Joannes Picus of the eight books was published 8vo. Paris, 1563, and has been repeatedly reprinted in the various editions of the Bibliotheca Patrum. It is in the fifth volume of the edition, Lyon. 1677.

Greek Edition

The Greek text was also published, 8vo. Paris, 1563, by Guillaume Morel, with the Antirrhetica of Hesychius of Jerusalem. [HESYCHIUs, No. 7.]

Περὶ παραδείσου καὶ νόμου πνευματικοῦ, of Macarius the Egyptian

To the Greek text and the Latin version were respectively prefixed, as if also written by Marcus, the text and version of a homily, Περὶ παραδείσου καὶ νόμου πνευματικοῦ, De Paradiso et Lege Spirituali, which is one of those extant under the name of Macarius the Egyptian [MACARIUS, No. 1 ], to whom it more probably belongs, and from whose works those of Marcus have been much interpolated.

Περὶ νηστείας,

To the end of the fifth, which is addressed to one Nicolaus, a friend of the writer, is subjoined Nicolaus' reply. A tract, Περὶ νηστείας, De Jejunio.


Latin Edition

A Latin version was first published by Zinus, with some other ascetic tracts, 8vo. Venice, 1574, is probably a part of the sixth book of the printed editions, the seventh of Photius, as it corresponds with the title given by Photius to that book.

Greek Editions

The Greek text of Morel's edition was reprinted, with the version of Picus, in the 1st vol. of the Auctarum of Ducaeus, fol. Paris, 1624, in the 11th vol. of the Bibl. Patrum, fol. Paris, 1654, and in the 8th vol. of the Bibl. Patrum of Galland.

Works not yet printed

Some other works are extant in MS.


Although the eight books as a whole, with the exception, as already noticed, of the Latin supplement of Zinus De Jejunio, first appeared in 1563, the first and second books, namely, Περὶ νόμου πνευματικοῦ, De Lege Spirituali, and Περὶ τῶν οἰομένων ἐξ ἔργων δικαιοῦσθαι, De his qui putant se Opsibus jusificari, had been published by Vincentius Opsopoeus, with a Latin version, 8vo. Haguenau. 1531; and the first book of the text and the version had been reprinted in the Micropresbyticon, Basel, 1550, and in the Orthodoxographa, Basel, 1555.

The work Εἰς τὸν Μελχιζεδέκ, De Melchizedech, which formed the ninth tract in the collection read by Photius, and the Greek text of the Περὶ νηστείας, De Jejunio, were first published by B. M. Remondinus, bishop of Zante and Cephalonia, with a Latin version, 4to. Rome, 1748, and are reprinted with the other works of Marcus, in the Bibliotheca of Galland.

Further Information

Palladius, l.c.; Sozomen, l.c.; Photius, l.c.; Niceph. Callist. l.c.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ix. p. 267, &c.; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 401, vol. i. p. 372 ; Oudin, De Sctiptor. Eccles. vol. i. col. 902, &c.; Tillemont, Mémoires, vol x. p. 801; Galland, Biblioth. Patrum, Proleg. ad Vol. VIII. c. l.

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