1. A distinguished Greek, a native of Rhodes.
The date of his birth is not accurately known, but Demosthenes (c. Aristocr.
p. 672) speaks of him as a young man in B. C. 352. His sister was the wife of Artabazus, satrap of Lower Phrygia, and he joined the latter in his revolt against Dareius Ochus. When fortune deserted the insurgents they fled to the court of Philip. Mentor, the brother of Memnon [MENTOR], being high in favour with Dareius on account of his services in Egypt, interceded on behalf of Artabazus and Memnon, who were pardoned and again received into flavour. On the death of Mentor, Memnon, who possessed great military skill and experience, succeeded him in his authority, which extended over all the western coast of Asia Minor (about B. C. 336). When Alexander
invaded Asia, Meninon, with the satraps Spithridates and Arsites, collected an army, with which they encamped on the banks of the Granicus. Memnon, thinking their forces insufficient to oppose Alexander
, recommended that they should retire and lay waste the country behind them; but his advice was overruled.
After the defeat of the Persian troops, Memrlon sent his wife and children to Dareius as tokens and pledges of his fidelity.
As he had hoped, he was invested by the king with the supreme command in the west of Asia.
He defended Halicarnassus against Alexander
with great skill and bravery, until it was no longer possible to bold out. Having set fire to the place, lie and Orontobates made their escape, and crossed over to Cos. Memnon now formed the design of carrying the war into Greece, and attacking Macedonia. Dareius had furnished him with large supplies of money.
He collected a large force of mercenaries, and a fleet of 300 ships.
At the head of this force he attacked and took Chios, and thence proceeded to Lesbos. Here he captured several towns without difficulty, but was delayed for a considerable time in the reduction of Mytilene.
At this place he was taken ill and died, B. C. 333. His death was an irreparable loss to the Persian cause; for several Greek states, and in particular the Spartans, hearing of his success and intentions, were prepared to join him, had he carried the war into Greece.
According to Polyaenus (5.44.1
) he was some time or other engaged in hostilities with Leucon, king of Bosporus, who died B. C. 353. (Arrian, 1.12, 20-23, 2.1; Diod. 16.34
; Clinton, F. H.
vol. ii. p. 284.)