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of Heracleia in Pontus, a Greek geographer, lived after Ptolemy, whom he frequently quotes, and before Stephanus of Byzantium, who refers to him, but his exact date is uncertain. If he is the same Marcianus as the one mentioned by Synesius (Ep. 103) and Socrates (H. E. 4.9), he must have lived at the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era.


A Periplus of the External Sea. both eastern and western, and of the largest islands in it.

Marcianus wrote a work in prose, entitled, Περίπλους τῆς ἔξω θαλάσσης ἑῴου τε καὶ ἑσπερίου καὶ τῶν ἐν αὐτ̂ͅ μεγίστων νήσων, A Periplus of the External Sea. both eastern and western, and of the largest islands in it. The External Sea he used in opposition to the Mediterranean, which he says had been sufficiently described by Artemiodorus. This work was in two books; of which the former, on the eastern and southern seas, has come down to us entire, but of the latter, which treated of the western and northern seas, we possess only the three last chapters on Africa, and a mutilated one on the distance from Rome to the principal cities in the world. In this work he chiefly follows Ptolemy, and in the calculation of the stadia he adopts the reckoning of Protagoras. He also made an epitome of the eleven books of the Periplous of Artemiodorus of Ephesus [ARTEMIDORUS, No. 6]. but of this epitome we have only the introduction, and the periplus of Pontus, Bithynia, and Paphlagonia. It was not, however, simply an abridgment of Artemiodorus for Marcianus tells us that he made use of the works of other distinguished geographers, who had written descriptions of coasts. among whom lie mentions Timosthenes of Rhodes, Eratosthenes, Pytheas of Massilia, Isidorus of Charax, Sosander the pilot, Simmias, Apellas of Cyrene, Euthymenes of Massilia, Phileas of Athens, Androsthenes of Thasus, Cleon of Sicily, Eudoxus of Rhodes, Hanno of Carthage, Scylax of Caryanda and Botthaeus; but he says that he followed more particularly Artemiodorus, Strabo, and Menippus of Pergamus. Marcianus also published an edition of Menippus with additions and corrections. [MENIPPUS.]


The extant works of Marcianus were first published by D. Hoeschelius in his "Geographica," August. Vindel. 1600, 8vo., then by Morell, Paris, 1602, 8vo., and subsequently by Hudson, in the first volume of his "Geographi Graeci Minores," Oxon. 1698, and by Miller, Paris, 1839, 8vo.

They have been also published separately by Hoffmann, Marciani Periplus, Menippi Peripli Fragm. &c., Lips. 1841, 8vo.

Further Information

Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iv. p. 613, &c.; Dodwell, de Aetate et scriptis Marciani, in Hudson, l.c.; Ukert, Geographie der Griechen und Römer, vol. i. pars i. p. 235 ; Forbiger, Handbuch der alten Geographie, vol. i. p. 448.

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