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Φιλιστίων a physician, born either at one of the Greek towns in Sicily (Diog. Laert. Vit. Philos. 8.8. §§ 86, 89), or among the Locri Epizephyrii in Italy (Galen, De Meth. Med. 1.1, vol. x. p. 6; Ruf. Ephes. De Corp. Hum. Part. Appell. p. 41; Plut. Sysmpos. 7.1.3 ; Aul. Gell. Noct. Att. 17.11.3; Ath. 3.83, p. 115). He was tutor to the physician Chrysippus of Cnidos (Diog. Laert. l.c. § 89) and the astronomer and physician Eudoxus (Callim. ap. Diog. Laert. § 86), and therefore must have lived in the fourth century B. C. He was one of those who defended the opinion that what is drunk goes into the lungs (Plut. l.c. ; Aul. Gell. l.c.). Some ancient critics attributed to Philistion the treatise De Salubri Victus Ratione (Galen, Comment. in Hippocr. "De Rat. Vict. in Morb. Acut." 1.17, vol. xv. p. 455, Comment. in Hippocr. "Aphor." 6.1, vol. xviii. pt. i. p. 9), and also that De Victus Ratione (Galen, De Aliment. Facult. 1.1, vol. vi. p. 473), both of which form part of the Hippocratic Collection; and by some persons he was considered to be one of the founders of the sect of the Empirici (De Subfig. Empir. 100.1, vol. ii. p. 340, ed. Chart.). He wrote a work on materia medica (Galen, De Succed. init. vol. xix. p. 721 and on Cookery (Ath. 12.12, p. 516), and is several times quoted by Pliny (Plin. Nat. 20.15, 34, 48) and Galen (De Nat. Facult. 2.8, vol. ii. p. 110, De Usu Respir. 100.1, vol. iv. p. 471, De Meth. Med. 1.3, 2.5, vol. x. pp. 28, 111). Oribasius attributes to him the invention of a machine for reducingr luxations of the humerus (De Machinam 100.4, p. 164). He is perhaps the person mentioned by M. Aurelius Antoninus (6.47).

A brother of Philistion, who was also a physician, but whose name is not known, is quoted by Caelius Aurelianus. (De Morb. Chron. 3.8, 5.1, pp. 488, 555.)


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