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Photius

4. Of TYRE. On the deposition of Irenaeus, bishop of Tyre, in A. D. 448, Photins was appointed his successor. Evagrius (H. E. 1.10) makes the deposition of Irenaeus one of the acts of the notorious Council of Ephesus, held in A. D. 449, and known as the "Concilium Latrocinale :" but Tillemont more correctly considers that the council only confirmed the previous deposition. (Mémoires, vol. xv. p. 268.) Photius of Tyre was one of the judges appointed by the emperor Theodosius II., in conjunction with Eustathius, bishop of Berytus and Uranius, bishop of Himerae in Osrhoiene, to hear the charges against Ibas, bishop of Edessa. Photius, Eustathius, and Uranius, met at Berytus, and Photius and Eustathius again met at Tyre, in the year 448 or 449, heard the charges, acquitted Ibas, and brought about a reconciliation between him and his accusers, who were presbyters of his own church at Edessa. (Concil. vol. iv. col. 627, &c., ed. Labbe, vol. ii. col. 503, &c., ed. IIardouin.) There is a considerable difficulty as to the chronology of these meetings, which is discussed by Tillemont in two of his careful notes. (Mém. vol. xv. p. 897, &c.) Photius was present at the Council of Ephesus, known as the "Concilium latrocinale," where he joined in acquitting the archimandrite Eutyches, and restoring him to his ecclesiastical rank from which he had been deposed. (Concil. vol. iv. col. 260, ed. Labbe, vol. ii. col. 220, ed. Hardouin.) About the same time Photius had a contest with Eustathius, bishop of Berytus, who had obtained an edict of the emperor Theodosius II., erecting Berytus into a metropolitan see, as to the extent of their respective jurisdictions. Tillemont judges that the dignity accorded to the see of Berytus, was designed to be merely titular, and that the struggle was occasioned by the attempt of Eustathius to assume metropolitan jurisdiction over some bishoprics previously under the jurisdiction of Tyre. In this attempt, being supported by the patriarchs, Anatolius of Constantinople, and Maximus of Antioch, he effected his purpose : and Photius, after a struggle, was constrained, not so much by an excommunication which was speedily recalled, as by a threat of deposition, to submit. The jurisdiction of the dioceses abstracted was, however, restored to Photius by the Council of Chalcedon, A. D. 451. (Concil. vol. iv. col. 539, ed. Labbe, vol. ii. col. 435, &c., ed. Hardouin.) Photius was among those who at the same council voted that Theodoret was orthodox, and should be restored to his see. (Concil. col. 619, ed. Labbe, col. 495, ed. Hardouin.) He also took part in some of the other transactions of the assembly. Nothing further is known of him. There is extant one piece of Photius, entitled Δεήσεις, Preces s. Supplex Libellus, addressed to the emperors Valentinian III. and Marcian, respecting the dispute with Eustathius of Berytus. It is given in the Actio Quarta of the Council of Chalcedon. (Concilia, vol. iv. col. 542, &c., ed. Labbe, vol. ii. col. 436, &c. ed. Hardouin.)

A Synopsis de Conciliis, extant in MS., is ascribed to Photius of Tyre : this cannot be, as some have supposed, the same work as the Epitome Actorum Conciliorum, also extant in MS., and ascribed to the more celebrated Photius, patriarch of Constantinople. (Tillemont, Mém. II. cc. ; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 451, vol. i. p. 443 ; Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. x. p. 678, vol. xii. p. 358.)

[J.C.M]

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