2. POLEMON II., was a son of the preceding and of Pythodoris. During the lifetime of his mother he was content to remain in a private station, while he assisted her in the administration of her dominions: but in A. D. 39, he was raised by Caligula to the sovereignty not only of Pontus, which had been held by Pythodoris, but of the Bosporus also.
This last was, however, after-wards taken from him by Claudius, who assigned it to Mithridates, while he gave Polemon a portion of Cilicia in its stead, A. D. 41. (D. C. 59.12
He appears to have been a man of a weak character, and in A. D. 48 allowed himself to be persuaded by Berenice, the widow of Herod, king of Chalcis, to adopt the Jewish religion in order that he might marry that princess, who possessed vast wealth. But Berenice had sought this marriage only as a cloak for her illicit amours [BERENICE, No. 2.] : it was in consequence soon dissolved, and Polemon ceased to profess Judaism (J. AJ 20.7.3
At a subsequent period he was induced by Nero to abdicate the throne, and Pontus was reduced to the condition of a Roman province.
This appears to have taken place about the year A. D. 62 (Suet. Nero 18
; Eutrop. 7.14
; Aur. Vict. de Caes
5.2; Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 873).
As the city of Polemionium on the Euxine (Scymn. Ch. Fr.
1.177; Steph. Byz. s. v. Πολεμώνιον
) is not mentioned by Strabo, it appears certain that we must ascribe its foundation to Polemon II., and not to his father. Concerning the coins of the two Polemons, see Cary, Hist. des Rois de Thrace et du Bosphore,
4to. Paris 1752, and Eckhel, vol. ii. pp. 368-373.