Historians named Ptolemaeus
1. Of Megalopolis, the son of Agesarchus.
History of King Ptolemy IV
He wrote a history of king Ptolemy IV. Philopator, which is quoted by Athenaeus (vi. p. 246c., x. p. 425e., xiii. p. 577f.), Clemens Alexandrinus (Protrep.
p. 13), and Arnobius (6.4).
From these passages it is clear that the historian lived at the court of Ptolemy, who reigned from B. C. 222 to B. C. 204. (Vossius, de Hist. Graec.
p. 157, ed. Westermann; Fabric. Bibl. Graec.
vol. v. p. 295). Schweighäuser supposes that the Ptolemy, who was governor of Cyprus during the regency of Ptolemy Philometor, is the same as Ptolemy of Megalopolis (Plb. 27.12
) ; but the governor of Cyprus was a different person. [See above, No. 19.]
2. An Egyptian priest, of Mendes.
History of Egypt
He wrote on the ancient history of Egypt (τὰ Αἰγυπτίων ἀνέκαθεν ἱστορῶν
, Syncell., p. 64).
He related the acts of the Egyptian kings in three books, as we learn from Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom.
i. p. 138), who immediately before quotes from Ptolemy ἐν τοῖς χρόνοις
, by which it appears doubtful whether we are to understand another distinct work, or a set of chronological tables connected with his great work on Egyptian history. Tatian also (ad v. Graec.
59) mentions him as a distinguished chronologer, and presently afterwards refers to his *xro/noi.
A scholiast on Homer also quotes from Ptolemy, Ε᾿ν τῷ πρώτῳ χρόνῳ
(Schol. Buttm. in Od.
He is also referred to by Justin (Exhort. ad Graec.
p. 10), Eusebius (Praep. Evang
. 10.12), Tertullian (Apol.
19), and Cyril (c. Julian.
i. p. 15).
He probably lived under the first Roman emperors ; for, since his work on Egypt was quoted by Apion (Clem. Alex. l.c.), it could not have been written later than the time of Tiberius; and, on the other hand, the absence of any allusion to it in Strabo, or any earlier writer, affords some presumption that it could not have been written earlier than the time of Augustus.
This conclusion would become certain, if we were to adopt the opinion of Meursius and Vossius, that this Ptolemy was the author of a work upon King Herod, which is quoted by Ammonius (de Verb. Diff. s. v. Ἰδουμαῖοι
; but it is at least as probable that the author there cited is Ptolemy of Ascalon, of whose authority Ammonius makes use in other articles.
Vossius, de Hist. Graec.
pp. 225, 226, ed. Westermann; Fabric. Bibl. Graec.
vol. v. p. 296.