1. The personification of the city of Rome, and as such called Dea Roma. Temples were erected to her, not only at Rome, but in other cities of the empire, such as Smyrna (Tac. Ann. 4.56
; Spartian. Hadr.
She was represented clad in a long robe, and with a helmet, in a sitting posture, strongly resembling the figures of the Greek Athena.
She was in reality the genius of the city of Rome, and was worshipped as such from early times; but it seems that previous to the time of Augustus, there was no temple dedicated to her in the city; but afterwards their number increased in all parts of the empire (Liv. 43.5
; Tac. Ann. 4.37
; Dio Cass. li. p. 458; P. Vict. Reg. Urb.
iv.). As Roma (ῥῶμη
) also signified "strength," it is not impossible that the ode of Erinna, addressed to Roma, may be an ode to the personification of strength.