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Θεμίσων), the name of probably three physicians.

1. The founder of the ancient medical sect of the Methodici, and one of the most eminent physicians of his time, was a native of Laodiceia in Syria (Pseudo-Gal. Introd. 100.4. vol. xiv. p. 684). He was a pupil of Asclepiades of Bithynia (Pliny, Plin. Nat. 29.5), and must have lived, therefore, in the first century B. C. Augustin, in his Gesch. der Med. in tabellarischer Form, says he was born B. C. 123, and died B. C. 43, which may possibly be quite correct, though he has not stated his reasons for giving such exact dates. Nothing more is known of the events of his life, except that he seems to have travelled a good deal; as he mentions Crete and Milan, apparently as an eye-witness (ap. Cael. Aurel. De Morb. Acut. 3.18, p. 252). Neither is it certain whether he ever visited Rome, though it is perhaps more probable that he did so. He differed from his tutor on several points in his old age, and became the founder of a new sect called the "Methodici," which long exercised an extensive influence on medical science. (Cels. De Med. i. praef. p. 5 ; Galen, De Meth. Med. 1.4, 7. vol. x. pp. 35, 52 ; Cramer's Anecd. Graeca Paris. vol. i. p. 395, where he is called by an obvious mistake Μεθήσων).


He wrote several medical works, but in what language is not mentioned; of these only the titles and a few fragments remain, preserved principally by Caelius Aurelianus : e. g.-- (Plin. Nat. 25.39; Macer Flor. De Vir. Herb. 100.6. 5.265.) To these works Fabricius adds one, De Elephantiasi (Bibl. Gr. vol. xiii. p. 432, ed. vet.), but this is probably a mistake (see Cael. Aurel. De Morb. Chron. 4.1. p. 493). An account of the doctrines of the Methodici is given in the Dictionary of Antiquities, and his medical opinions on different subjects (so far as they can be ascertained) may be found in Haller's Biblioth. Medic. Pract. vol. i., or in Sprengel's Hist. de la Méd. vol. ii. The only points worth noticing here, are, that he is perhaps the first physician who made use of leeches (Cael. Aurel. De Morb. Chron. 1.1. p. 286); and that he is said to have been himself attacked with hydrophobia, and to have recovered (id. De Morb. Acut. 3.16. p. 232; Dioscor. De Venen. Animal. 100.1. vol. ii. p. 59). Eudemus and Proculus are said to have been followers (" sectatores") of Themison, but this probably only means that they belonged to the sect of the Methodici (Cael. Aurel. De Morb. Acut. 2.38, De Morb. Chron. 3.8. pp. 171, 469). Besides the passages in ancient authors relating to Themison that are referred to by Haller, Sprengel, and Fabricius (Bibl. Gr. vol. xiii. p. 431, ed. vet.), the is also quoted by Soranus (De Arte Obstetr. pp. 12, 21,210, 212, 240, 290.)

1 The passage quoted by Paulus Aegineta (3.15. p. 426), from Epist. lib. x. is quoted by Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Chron. 1.3. p. 288), from lib. ii.

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