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2. The country which is now called Hellas was not regularly settled1 in ancient times2. The people were migratory, and readily left their homes whenever they were overpowered by numbers. [2] There was no commerce, and they could not safely hold intercourse3 with one another either by land or sea. The several tribes cultivated their own soil just enough to obtain a maintenance from it. But they had no accumulations of wealth, and did not plant the ground; for, being without walls, they were never sure that an invader might not come and despoil them. Living in this manner and knowing that they could anywhere obtain a bare subsistence, they were always ready to migrate; so that they had neither great cities nor any considerable resources. [3] The richest districts were most constantly changing their inhabitants; for example, the countries which are now called Thessaly and Boeotia, the greater part of the Peloponnesus with the exception of Arcadia, and all the best parts of Hellas. [4] For the productiveness of the land4 increased the power of individuals; this in turn was a source of quarrels by which communities5 were ruined, while at the same time they were more exposed to attacks from without. [5] Certainly Attica, of which the soil was poor and thin, enjoyed a long freedom from civil strife, and therefore retained its original inhabitants. [6] And a striking confirmation of my argument is afforded by the fact6 that Attica through immigration increased in population more than any other region. For the leading men of Hellas7, when driven out of their own country by war or revolution, sought an asylum at Athens; and from the very earliest times, being admitted to rights of citizenship, so greatly increased the number of inhabitants that Attica became incapable of containing them, and was at last obliged to send out colonies to Ionia.

1 Or, taking οὐ πάλαι closely together: 'until recent times.'

2 Or, taking οὐ πάλαι closely together: 'until recent times.'

3 Weakness of ancient Hellas: readiness of the early tribes to migrate: the richer districts the more unsettled; some of the poorer, like Attica, in reality the more prosperous.

4 Or, 'gave to some communities greater power; this was a source of quarrels, by which they' etc.

5 Or, 'gave to some communities greater power; this was a source of quarrels, by which they' etc.

6 Or, taking as ἐς τὰ ἂλλα in another sense: 'that Attica through immigration increased in population quite out of proportion to her increase in other respects;' or, supplying τὴν ᾿ελλάδα and taking μετοικίας in another sense: 'And here is a striking confirmation of my argument that the constant migrations were the cause which prevented the rest of Hellas from increasing equally with Attica. The leading men of Hellas,' etc.

7 Or, taking as ἐς τὰ ἂλλα in another sense: 'that Attica through immigration increased in population quite out of proportion to her increase in other respects;' or, supplying τὴν ᾿ελλάδα and taking μετοικίας in another sense: 'And here is a striking confirmation of my argument that the constant migrations were the cause which prevented the rest of Hellas from increasing equally with Attica. The leading men of Hellas,' etc.

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