adversary would be compelled to make on him, to take the reasonable chances of defeating him in a pitched battle; knowing full well that to obtain such an advantage there, would place him in position to attain far more decisive results than could be hoped for from a like advantage gained in Virginia
But even if unable to attain the valuable results which might be expected to follow a decided advantage gained over the enemy in Maryland
, it was thought that the movement would at least so far disturb the Federal
plan for the summer campaign as to prevent its execution during the season for active operations.
In pursuance of this design, early in the month of June, General Lee
moved his army northward by way of Culpepper
, and thence to and down the Valley of Virginia
The army had been reorganized into three army corps, designated the First, Second, and Third Corps, and commanded respectively by Lieutenant Generals Longstreet
, and A. P. Hill
The Second Corps was in advance, and crossed the branches of the Shenandoah
, near Front Royal
, on the 12th of June.
Brushing aside the force of the enemy under General Milroy
, that occupied the lower valley-most of which was captured, and the remnant of which sought refuge in the fortifications at Harper's Ferry
crossed the Potomac river
with his three divisions in the latter part of June; and, in pursuance of the orders of General Lee
, traversed Maryland
and advanced into Pennsylvania
. General A. P. Hill
, whose corps was the last to leave the line of the Rappahannock
, followed, with his three divisions, in Ewell
covered these movements with his corps; then moved by Ashby's and Snicker's Gaps into the Valley
, and likewise crossed the Potomac river
, leaving to General Stuart
the task of holding the gaps of the Blue Ridge Mountains
with his corps of cavalry.
The Federal commander had meanwhile moved his army so as to cover Washington City
; and, as soon as. he was thoroughly informed, by Ewell
's rapid advance, of the real intention of his adversary, he, too, crossed into Maryland
On the 27th of June, General Lee
was near Chambersburg
with the First and Third Corps, the Second being still in advance, but within supporting distance.
With the exception of the cavalry, the army was well in hand.
The absence of that indispensable arm of the service was most seriously felt by General Lee
He had directed General Stuart
to use his discretion as to where and when to cross the river — that is, he was to cross east of the mountains, or retire through the mountain passes into the Valley
and cross in the immediate rear of the infantry, as the movements of the