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[474] obvious that he intended to accomplish this by way of the Baltimore pike, and the roads hereafter described, simultaneously with Pickett's attack in front. In the concentration of his forces for this object, however, Hampton's and Fitzhugh Lee's Brigades, as he further states, unfortunately debouched into open ground, disclosing the movement, and causing the corresponding movement of a large force of our cavalry, and to this Stuart attributes his want of success. Although checked in his original design, nevertheless, he adds: “Had the enemy's main body been dislodged, as was confidently hoped and expected” (by Pickett's charge) “I was in precisely the right position to discover it and improve the opportunity. I watched keenly and anxiously the indications in his rear for that purpose, while in the attack which I intended (which was forestalled by our troops being exposed to view), his cavalry would have separated from the main body, and gave promise of solid results and advantages.”

Stuart acknowledges that the position which he held was very strong, and he is fully justified in his description of it. A country crossroad branches off from the York turnpike about two and a half miles from Gettysburg, and runs in a southeasterly direction towards the Salem Church road, which connects the York and Baltimore turnpikes. About half the distance to the Salem Church road, and a mile from it, the road crosses Cress' Run, and then rises to the ridge mentioned by Stuart, and known as Cress' Ridge. A moderately thick piece of woods on the right, (as Stuart's line faced) ends at the crest of the ridge, affording protection and cover to the supports of the battery which was subsequently placed there. Screened by the piece of woods, and on the opposite side of the cross-road, is a large open space on the Stallsmith farm, where the Confederate leader was enabled to mass and maneuvre his cavalry without its being observed from our position.

Gregg's position was as inferior to Stuart's as the general line occupied by the main body of the Army of Northern Virginia was to that occupied by the Army of the Potomac. As Stuart says, the whole country for miles lay at his feet. The Salem Church road crosses the Bonaughtown road nearly at right angles, about three and a half miles southeast of Gettysburg, at the Reever house, and continues on about two miles further until it reaches the Baltimore pike about one and three-fourths miles southeast of its crossing over Rock creek and the rear of centre of our main line of battle.1

1 A country road, parallel with the Salem Church road, and from a half mile to a mile nearer Gettysburg, runs from the Bonaughtown road, at the Howard house, along the valley of Cress' Run, and strikes the Baltimore pike by the bridge over White Run, less than a mile southeast of the bridge over Rock Creek, near which latter, by Powers' Hill, were the Reserve Artillery, and the ammunition trains. This, being a more direct one than the Salem Church road, was used by our troops for operating between the Baltimore pike and the Bonaughtown road, and, consequently, the rear of our main line of battle was even more accessible by this than by the road above described.

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J. E. B. Stuart (6)
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