they found African
slavery, or any other sort of slavery, prohibited by State Constitutions.
They also found a law existing, supposed to be valid, by which slavery was excluded from almost all the territory the United States
This was the condition of the country, with reference to the institution of slavery, on the first of January, 1854.
A few days after that, a bill was introduced into Congress, which ran through its regular course in the two branches of the National Legislature, and finally passed into a law in the month of May, by which the act of Congress prohibiting slavery from going into the Territories
of the United States
In connection with the law itself, and, in fact, in the terms of the law, the then existing prohibition was not only repealed, but, there was a declaration of a purpose on the part of Congress never thereafter to exercise any power that they might have, real or supposed, to prohibit the extension or spread of slavery.
This was a very great change ; for the law thus repealed was of more than thirty years standing.
Following rapidly upon the heels of this action of Congress, a decision of the Supreme Court is made, by which it is declared that Congress, if it desires to prohibit the spread of slavery into the Territories
, has no Constitutional power to do so. Not only so, but that decision lays down principles, which, if pushed to their logical conclusion — I say pushed to their logical conclusion-would decide that the Constitutions of free States, forbidding slavery, are themselves unconstitutional.
Mark me, I do not say the Judge
said this, and let no man say I affirm the Judge
used these words ; but I only say it is my opinion that what they did say, if pressed to its logical conclusion, will inevitably result thus.
Looking at these things, the Republican party, as I understand its principles and policy, believe that there is great danger of the institution of slavery being spread out and extended, until it is ultimately made alike lawful in all the States of this Union ; so believing, to prevent that incidental and ultimate consummation, is the original and chief purpose of the Republican
I say “chief purpose” of the Republican
organization ; for it is certainly true that if the National House
shall fall into the hands of the Republicans, they will have to attend to all the other matters of National House-keeping, as well as this.
The chief and real purpose of the Republican party is eminently conservative.
It proposes nothing save and except to restore this Government to its original tone in regard to this element of slavery, and there to maintain it, looking for no further change in reference to it, than that which the original framers of the Government
themselves expected and looked forward to.
The chief danger to this purpose of the Republican party is not just now the revival of the African slave-trade, or the passage of a Congressional slave code, or the declaring of a second Dred Scott
decision, making slavery lawful in all the States.
These are not pressing us just now. They are not quite ready yet. The authors of these measures know that we are too strong for them ; but they will be upon us in due time, and we will be grappling with them hand to hand, if they are not now headed off. They are not now the chief danger to the purpose of the Republican
organization ; but the most imminent danger that now threatens that purpose is that insidious Douglas Popular Sovereignty.
This is the miner and sapper.
While it does not propose to revive the African slave-trade, nor to pass a slave code, nor to make a second Dred Scott
decision, it is preparing the onslaught and charge of these ultimate enemies when they shall be ready to come on and the word of command for them to advance shall be given.
I say this Douglas Popular Sovereignty --for there is a broad distinction, as I now understand it, between that article and a genuine Popular Sovereignty.
I believe there is a genuine popular sovereignty.
I think a definition of genuine popular sovereignty, in the abstract, would he about this : That each man shall do precisely as he pleases with himself, and with all those things which exclusively concern him. Applied to Government, this principle would be, that a General Government shall do all those things which pertain to it, and all the local Governments shall do precisely as they please in respect to those matters which exclusively concern them.