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[125] gained in Virginia. But even if unable to attain the valuable results which might be expected to follow a decided advantage gained over the enemy in Maryland or Pennsylvania, it was thought that the movement would at least so far disturb the Federal plan for the summer campaign as to prevent its execution during the season for active operations.

In pursuance of this design, early in the month of June, General Lee moved his army northward by way of Culpeper, and thence to and down the Valley of Virginia to Winchester. The army had been reorganized into three army corps, designated the First, Second and Third corps, and commanded respectively by Lieutenant-Generals Longstreet, Ewell and A. P. Hill. The Seeonl corps was in advance, and crossed the branches of the Shenandoah, near Front Royal, on the 12th of June. Brushing aside the force of the enemy, under General Milroy, that occupied the lower Valley-most of which was captured and the remnant of which sought refuge in the fortifications at Harper's Ferry-General Ewell crossed the Potomac river with his three divisions in the latter part of June, and, in pursuance of the orders of General Lee, traversed Maryland and advanced into Pennsylvania. General A. P. Hill, whose corps was the last to leave the line of the Rappahannock, followed with his three divisions in Ewell's rear. General Longstreet covered these movements with his corps; then moved by Ashby's and Snicker's Gaps into the Valley and likewise crossed the Potomac river, leaving to General Stuart the task of holding the gaps of the Blue Ridge mountains with his corps of cavalry. The Federal commander had meanwhile moved his army so as to cover Washington city; and, as soon as he was thoroughly informed, by Ewell's rapid advance, of the real intention of his adversary, he too crossed into Maryland. On the 27th of June General Lee was near Chambersburg with the First and Third corps, the Second being still in advance, but within supporting distance. With the exception of the cavalry, the army was well in hand. The absence of that indispensable arm of the service was most seriously felt by General Lee. He had directed General Stuart to use his discretion as to where and when to cross the river — that is, he was to cross east of the mountains, or retire through the mountain passes into the Valley and cross in the immediate rear of the infantry, as the movements of the enemy and

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