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[196] I marched towards the Valley, attending near the Commanding-General to be ready for such service as might be required.

On the 25th, the army having sufficiently rested in camp near Millwood and Berryville, crossed the Potomac, the Third corps at Shepherdstown, the First at Williamsport — the Comir.anding-General being with the latter, and my duties lying near him.

On Wednesday, 1st July, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, having been reached by easy marches, and passed after a rest of one or two days, and the army being in motion towards Gettysburg, occasional cannon shots in that direction were heard by myself and others with the main body, as, before noon, we crossed the mountain. Two divisions of the Third corps, Heth's and Pender's, the former with Pegram's artillery battalion, the latter with McIntosh's, were in advance on this road; while of the Second corps, Early's division, attended by Jones' artillery battalion was approaching from the direction of York, and Rodes' from that of Carlisle, accompanied by Carter's battalion. The advance of the Third corps had encountered, at Gettysburg, a force of the enemy, and the firing heard was the beginning of the battle. Its significance, however, was not then fully understood. It might be only a passing skirmish; it might be more serious.

After a brief pause near Cash Town, to see how it would prove, the Commanding-General finding the cannonade to continue and increase, moved rapidly forward. I did the same, and at his request rode near him for instructions. Arriving near the crest of an eminence more than a mile west of the town, dismounting and leaving horses under cover, we, on foot, took position overlooking the field. It was, perhaps, two o'clock, and the battle was raging with considerable violence. The troops of the Second corps having reached the field sometime after the engagement was opened by those of the Third, Carter's and Jones' batteries were, at the time of our arrival, plied on the left with freshness and vigor upon the batteries and infantry that had been pressing the Third corps; and when these turned upon their new assailants they were handsomely enfiladed by the batteries of McIntosh and Pegram, posted in front of our look-out on the left and right of the road. To counteract this damaging double-attack, the enemy made, especially with his artillery, such effort as he could. Observing the course of events, the Commanding-General suggested whether positions on the right could not be found to enfilade the valley between our position and the town and the enemy's batteries next the town. My services were immediately tendered, and the endeavor was made. Where the Fairfield road crosses our range of hills was the farthest to the right admissible, as there was no infantry support near, and a wooded height a few hundred yards beyond seemed occupied by the enemy. Here some guns that had been sent for from Mclntosh's battery were posted, under command of Captain M. Johnson; but to advance them and open fire was not deemed proper till some infantry should arrive, need of which had been promptly reported. Under fire they were, more or less, from the first.

Meanwhile, the enemy yielded ground on the left, our batteries as well as infantry were advanced, and additional troops came up. Garnett's battalion moved to the front, slightly participated in the fight, and then, under cover of a hill near the Brick seminary, awaited orders. Poague's battalion also arrived, and moved to Garnett's right into line under cover, across the Fairfield road, between Captain Johnson's position and the town. Having sent members of my staff to reconnoitre the woods An the right, and explore, as well as they might be able, a road observed along a ravine back of those woods, I now pushed forward on the Fairfield road to the ridge adjoining the town, intending to put there Garnett's and other guns, which had been previously ordered forward. The position was within range of the hill beyond the town to which the enemy was retreating, and where he was massing his batteries. General Ramseur, coming up from the town which his command had just occupied, met me at this point and requested that our batteries might not then


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Garnett (3)
Willie Pegram (2)
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