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[109] give you as full and reliable reports of the movements of his corps up to the battle of Gettysburgh as of the main body of the army, which crossed the Potomac two days after his corps. I learn that Ewell's crossed on the twenty-second June--one portion at Shepherdstown and another at Williamsport, and that the two columns united at Hagerstown. From the latter place, one division — Rhodes's, I think — was pushed on through Greencastle and Chambersburgh to Carlisle, making at all three of these places considerable captures of army supplies — hats, shoes, clothing, and medical stores. Another division — Early's — turned to the right from Chambersburgh and moved on York, on the Northern Central Railroad, when, after a short and inconsiderable engagement with a body of Pennsylvania militia, in which quite a number were taken prisoners, the town surrendered. Early then pushed on to Wrightsville, on the south side of the Susquehanna, where was posted a small body of militia, who fled precipitately at his approach across the river, and burned the bridge. Some few prisoners were taken at Carlisle--two or three hundred--all militia, and they, as also those captured at York and Wrightsville, were immediately paroled and discharged.

On the morning of June twenty-fourth, A. P. Hill's corps (the Third) crossed the Potomac at Boteler's Mill, one mile below Shepherdstown, Anderson's division being in the advance. That night the head of Hill's corps reached Boonsboro, which latter place was occupied by Wright's brigade of Anderson's division. From this place we moved on Chambersburgh, via Funkstown, Hagerstown, and Middleburgh, reaching the former on the twenty-seventh. Passing through Chambersburgh on the twenty-seventh, we pushed on to Fayetteville, five miles from Chambersburgh, on the Baltimore and Philadelphia turnpike. Here we halted until Tuesday, the thirtieth, waiting for the rear of the corps and our supply trains to come up. In the mean time Longstreet's corps had turned up the river from Millwood, and, passing through Martinsburgh, crossed the river at Williamsport, and, falling into our line of advance at Hagerstown, followed it to Fayetteville, reaching the latter place on Monday, the twenty-ninth. Having now concentrated our army, except Ewell's corps, whose operations have already been given, on Tuesday, the thirtieth, General Lee ordered the line of march to be taken up for Gettysburgh, twenty miles distant in an easterly direction. In this movement Hill's corps was in the advance, and in the following order: Heth's division, Pender's division, Anderson's division; then Longstreet's corps, McLaws's division, Hood's division — Pickett's division being left at Chambersburgh to protect our rear and convoy the reserve trains. Two miles from Fayetteville we crossed the South-Mountain at Stephens's (Thaddeus) iron works, all of which were completely destroyed. Owing to the narrow road through the mountain pass, only two divisions of Hill's corps crossed the mountain on the thirtieth. Earry on Wednesday Hill's remaining division (Anderson's) and Longstreet's corps moved on after Hill's advance.

At ten o'clock A. M. on the first instant, Heth's division being ahead, encountered the enemy's advance line — the Eleventh corps--about three miles west of Gettysburgh. Here a sharp en. gagement began, our men steadily advancing and driving the enemy before them to the town and to a range of hills or low mountains running out a little east of south from the town. Late in the evening two divisions — Early's and Rhodes's, of Ewell's corps — came up on our left from Carlisle and York, and, falling upon the enemy's right flank, drove him with great slaughter upon and through the town to the heights on the south. In the mean time Pender's division (of Hill's corps) had moved up to the support of Heth on the right, and opened a hot fire upon the enemy, which drove them back upon the low mountain range already alluded to. Anderson's division got up too late to participate in the day's engagement, owing to its having been unnecessarily halted for more than three hours on the eastern slope of the South-Mountain, at a small village called Cashtown. This halt was made while the division was not only hearing the fire of the battle, but was actually in sight. From its position the men could see each discharge of our own and the enemy's guns — could see that Heth was driving him slowly but steadily. If Anderson had pushed on, it is more than probable that the whole Yankee force would have been captured; for up to this time (Wednesday evening) the enemy had not brought up his main force. The addition of Anderson's force to that already engaged on our side would have enabled us to get possession of the mountain range upon which the subsequent battles were fought by the enemy. Had our army succeeded in getting possession of this range, there can be no doubt that the whole Yankee army would have been destroyed. As it was, the delay of Anderson prevented Heth and Pender from taking possession of this important position, and permitted it to fall into the enemy's hands. I have no hesitation in saying that this fatal blunder was fraught with the most disastrous consequences to our arms. I learn that all the brigadier commanders in Anderson's division were anxious to advance, but the Major-General would not consent. I have heard no reason given for this delay, and presume that General Lee will have the whole matter investigated. It is due to himself and his noble army that it should be done — that the country and army should know why seven or eight thousand men were kept idle in sight of a terrible and important battle, without being allowed to fire a gun. The result of the day's fight may be summed up thus: We had attacked a superior force; had driven him over three miles; captured three thousand prisoners, and killed and wounded five or six thousand. Our own loss was not heavy, though a few brigades suffered severely. The conduct of Gordon's and Hays's brigades is said to have been very fine. It was these two brigades of Early's division which drove the enemy


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