Example of battle with center and one wing reinforced: battle of Wagram, July 6, 1809.
The army of Napoleon
amounted to 150,000 combatants, that of the Archduke Charles
On the nights of the 4th and 5th of July the French
crossed the Danube
, and took on the 5th the position F F ; on the 6th they advanced in the position F‘ F‘ F‘. In consequence of this, the Austrians proceeded to the attack by taking the position A A. Their right wing, consisting of 50,000 men, advanced to the attack of Napoleon
's left wing, which he had refused; this consisted of one division, commanded by General Boudet
This left for the Austrian center and left wing but 70,000 men, against which Napoleon
had concentrated nearly twice that number.
The length of his front for center and left wing was about 11,000 yards, the accumulation of forces amounting, therefore, to from 11 to 12 men for every yard.
Massenas's corps, with Bernadotte
's, is opposite to Aderklaa.
's corps, with Lannes's, is opposite to Baumersdorf.
, with his corps, is opposite to Neusiedel.
Eugene, Wrede, and Marmont
are in advance of Rahsdorf, in third and fourth lines of battle.
On the left of the center, a battery of 100 guns forms the communication between the center and the left wing.
This battle can also serve as an example of a convex and concave order of battle; it shows well the danger of the convex order.
If the Austrians force the left wing of the French
, they find themselves at once in rear of the whole army.
In this case, however, this operation could not be executed with the necessary energy, as their total inferiority was too great; and, while they were attacking the French
left wing, their own left wing and center were treated in the roughest manner.
left wing was outflanked by Davoust
, and the retreat of their whole army was the consequence.
The retreat was, however, effected in good order; and the loss on both sides was nearly equal, amounting to about 20,000 killed and wounded for each party.