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[77] by refusing the advice to let Vicksburg go, and escape with his army at least. All these follies had been committed by Pemberton; but we must also remember that Grant knew Pemberton was the man to commit them, and fought his campaign accordingly. And so on July 4, 1863, Vicksburg surrendered. Pemberton remained seated with his staff as Grant came up on their veranda. None of them seem to have been of the mettle that loses gracefully; but in the words of a gentleman, the Comte de Paris, “As victory put Grant in a position to be indifferent to this, he affected not to notice it, and, addressing Pemberton, asked him how many rations were needed for his army.” Consideration for people in distress was, after the fact of surrender, his first thought here, as it had been at Donelson. And with the same humane watchfulness, when he presently discovered a Mississippi steamboat captain overcharging his men and

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