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[78] officers going home on furlough, he compelled the excess to be refunded. “I will teach them,” he said, “that the men who have perilled their lives to open the Mississippi River for their benefit cannot be imposed upon with impunity.”

So Pemberton surrendered Vicksburg to Grant in a sulky temper, and proceeded to write articles proving Johnston was to blame. On the day before, the noble and defeated Lee was saying to a Confederate brother, “Never mind, general, all this has been my fault: it is I that have lost this fight, and you must help me out of it the best way you can.” For on the preceding day, July 3, 1863, the Union had won Gettysburg. On this day of Vicksburg's surrender, Lee began his retreat. Had two separate nations been at war, here they would have stopped. But one piece of a nation was trying to separate itself from the rest; and the rest had to follow it,

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