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[133] owners the benefit of their slaves by adding three-fifths of the number of the black non-voting population to the sum of the white voting population. Slaves were free now, but this was the arrangement which the South proposed to continue. Let the reader pause, and take it in. Johnson, for personal reasons, encouraged it, and alarmed Congress. Naturally, the North lost patience; and Grant lost his patience, too. This swept away the Fourteenth Amendment, an admirable device by which any State could deny a vote to a part of its male population on condition that its representation in Congress was proportionately reduced. This elastic remedy, which held hope, was destroyed by the precipitate deplorable blunder of the Fifteenth Amendment, the evils of which have stained our soil with increasing blood each year, and developed that barbarism of which the South has had too great a share from the beginning. But,

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