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[133] the fair prospect of a just settlement of the important questions involved in reconstruction. Without authority he appointed provisional governors, authorized conventions to frame constitutions, dictated who should vote, and on what conditions the states might be restored to the Union. And all this he did to secure to rebels and not to loyal men the power of reconstruction. He had declared that rebels “must take back seats,” but he now pardoned them, and even appointed them provisional governors. He had promised to be the Moses of the colored race, but now all his efforts were directed to leading them back into virtual bondage. And that was the sum and substance of “my policy” --to restore all political power to the old slave-holding aristocrats who had risen in wicked rebellion, and to subject the colored race, who had been made freemen by the war and by amendment to the constitution, to a state of dependence and tutelage in no way better than slavery itself.

Encouraged by favors they had no right to expect, the old spirit of the rebels was soon made manifest. They no longer accepted their condition as conquered enemies of the republic, but arrogantly demanded the rights of citizens. They showed their hatred of Union men, and sought to oppress the freedmen as they had oppressed their slaves, bringing on again a state little better than war in some portions of the South, and exciting a spirit no better than rebellion.

General Grant had occasion to issue orders for the suppression of this rebellious spirit which grew out of Andrew Johnson's policy, and he became convinced that he had been deceived by the apparent humility of the rebels, or that the malignant spirit of the rebellion

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