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[139] far as it was intrusted to the military authorities, whether it clashed with the purposes of Andrew Johnson and the rebels or not; and his subordinates, equally obedient to the law, and inspired and sustained by him, acted promptly and fearlessly. This conduct of Grant, and the military commanders, excited the anger of Johnson, who has always hated those who opposed his will and his opinions. Their removal of rebel civil officers, in governments which were merely tolerated till new and permanent governments could be established, were especially objectionable to him. Their full recognition of the rights of negroes, as secured by the reconstruction acts, was unpardonable. That they could act independently of him, and in opposition to his “policy,” was intolerable. Their popularity with the people of the North, not only for their faithful service in reconstruction, but for their brilliant victories and brave deeds during the war, was an additional annoyance, for he did not dare to do what he most desired, and remove them all at once to make way for his tools, if he could find any.

Regardless, however, of Mr. Johnson's ill temper, Grant quietly performed his duties under the laws of Congress, and as commander of the army manifesting the same subordination to legitimate authority, and the same steady support of the policy of the loyal North, which he had shown during the war. He made no public declarations of his views, and did not under-take to construe the laws to suit any theory of his own, but executed them according to their plain intent and purpose. As a soldier, he abstained from a frequent expression of his political opinions, and his constitutional

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