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[165] Vice-royalty, now departments of the Mexican Republic, lying on both sides of the Rio Grande from its head to its mouth, we now propose to incorporate, so far as they lie on the left bank of the river, into our Union, by virtue of a treaty of reannexation with Texas. Let us pause and look at our new and important proposed acquisitions in this quarter. First: There is the department, formerly the province, of New Mexico, lying on both sides of the river from its head-spring to near the Pass del Norte — that is to say, half way down the river. This department is studded with towns and villages — is populated, well cultivated, and covered with flocks and herds. On its left bank (for I only speak of the part which we propose to reannex) is, first, the frontier village Taos, 3,000 souls, and where the custom-house is kept at which the Missouri caravans enter their goods. Then comes Santa Fe, the capital, 4,000 souls; then Albuquerque, 6,000 souls; then some scores of other towns and villages — all more or less populated and surrounded by flocks and fields. Then come the departments of Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas, without settlements on the left bank of the river, but occupying the right bank, and commanding the left. All this — being parts of four Mexican departments, now under Mexican Governors and Governments — is permanently reannexed to this Union, if this treaty is ratified, and is actually reannexed from the moment of the signature of the treaty, according to the President's last Message, to remain so until the acquisition is rejected by rejecting the treaty! The one-half of the department of New Mexico, with its capital, becomes a territory of the United States; an angle of Chihuahua, at the Pass del Norte, famous for its wine, also becomes ours; a part of the department of Coahuila, not populated on the left bank, which we take, but commanded from the right bank by Mexican authorities; the same of Tamaulipas, the ancient Nuevo Santander (New St. Andrew), and which covers both sides of the river from its mouth for some hundred miles up, and all the left bank of which is in the power and possession of Mexico. These, in addition to old Texas; these parts of four States--these towns and villages — these people and territory — these flocks and herds — this slice of the Republic of Mexico, two thousand miles long and some hundred broad — all this our President has cut off from its mother empire, and presents to us, and declares it ours till the Senate rejects it! He calls it Texas! and the cutting off he calls reannexation! Humboldt calls it New Mexico, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Nuevo Santander — now Tamaulipas; and the civilized world may qualify this reannexation by the application of some odious and terrible epithet. Demosthenes advised the people of Athens not to take, but to retake, a certain city; and in that re lay the virtue which saved the act from the character of spoliation and robbery. Will it be equally potent with us? and will the re prefixed to the annexation legitimate the seizure of two thousand miles of a neighbor's dominion, with whom we have treaties of peace, and friendship, and commerce? Will it legitimate this seizure, made by virtue of a treaty with Texas, when no Texan force — witness the disastrous expeditions to Mier and to Santa Fe — have been seen near it without being killed or taken, to the last man?

I wash my hands of all attempts to dismember the Mexican Republic by seizing her dominions in New Mexico, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas. The treaty, in all that relates to the boundary of the Rio Grande, is an act of unparalleled outrage on Mexico. It is the seizure of two thousand miles of her territory, without a word of explanation with her, and by virtue of a treaty with Texas, to which she is no party. Our Secretary of State, in his letter to the United States Charge in Mexico several days after the treaty was signed, and after the Mexican Minister had withdrawn from our seat of Government, shows full well that he was conscious of the enormity of this outrage; knew it was war; and proffered volunteer apologies to avert the consequences which he knew he had provoked

I therefore propose, as an additional resolution, applicable to the Rio del Norte boundary alone — the one which I will read and send to the Secretary's table, and on which, at the proper time, I shall ask the vote of the Senate. This is the resolution:

Resolved, That the incorporation of the left bank of the Rio Del Norte into tho American Union, by virtue of a treaty with Texas, comprehending, as the said incorporation would do, a part of the Mexican departments of New Mexico, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas, would be an act of direct aggression on Mexico; for all the consequences of which the United States would stand responsible.

The opposition of the Northern Democrats to the Annexation project, though crippled by the action of their National Convention, was not entirely suppressed. Especially in New York, where attachment to the person and the fortunes of Mr. Van Buren had been peculiarly strong,

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