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[235] tempt to amend it was voted down, and the bill ordered to be engrossed, by 35 Yeas to 13 Nays. It was immediately passed, and, being approved by President Pierce, became a law of the land.

The struggle which ensued for the practical possession of Kansas was one which Congress had thus clearly provoked and invited.

When the bill organizing Kansas and Nebraska was first submitted to Congress in 1853, all that portion of Kansas which adjoins the State of Missouri, and, in fact, nearly all the accessible portion of both Territories, was covered by Indian reservations, on which settlement by whites was strictly forbidden. The only exception was that in favor of Government agents and religious missionaries; and these, especially the former, were nearly all Democrats and violent partisans of Slavery. Among the missionaries located directly on the border was the Rev. Thomas Johnson, of the Methodist Church South, who was among the few who had already introduced and then held slaves in the territory which is now Kansas, in defiance of the Missouri Restriction. He was a violent politician of the Missouri border pattern, and in due time became President of the Council in the first Territorial Legislature of Kansas--elected almost wholly by non-resident and fraudulent votes. Within the three months immediately preceding the passage of the Kansas bill aforesaid, treaties were quietly made at Washington with the Delawares, Otoes, Kickapoos, Kaskaskias, Shawnees, Sacs, Foxes, and other tribes, whereby the greater part of the soil of Kansas lying within one or two hundred miles of the Missouri border was suddenly opened to White appropriation and settlement. These simultaneous purchases of Indian lands by the Government, though little was known of them elsewhere, were thoroughly understood and appreciated by the Missourians of the Western border, who had for some time been organizing “Blue lodges,” “Social bands,” “Sons of the South,” and other societies, with intent to take possession of Kansas in behalf of Slavery. They were well assured, and they fully believed, that the object contemplated and desired, in lifting, by the terms of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, the interdict of Slavery from Kansas, was to authorize and facilitate the legal extension of Slavery into that region. Within a very few days after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, hundreds of leading Missourians crossed into the adjacent Territory, selected each his quarter-section or larger area of land, put some sort of mark on it, and then united with his fellow-adventurers in a meeting or meetings intended to establish a sort of Missouri preemption upon all this region. Among the resolves passed at one of these meetings, were the following:

That we will afford protection to no abolitionist as a settler of this Territory.

That we recognize the institution of Slavery as already existing in this Territory, and advise slaveholders to introduce their property as early as possible.

Information being received, soon after this, that associations were being formed in the Eastern States, designed to facilitate and promote the migration of citizens of those

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