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[550] with the possession, on his part, of courage, common sense, and loyalty.1

III. The failure of Gen. Scott to send forward with Gen. McDowell a force adequate to provide against all contingencies. The fact that 20,000 volunteers remained idle and useless, throughout that eventful Sunday, in and immediately around WashingtonScott having obstinately resisted entreaties that they should be dispatched to the front-insisting that McDowell had “men enough” --that he needed no cavalry, etc.--of itself attests strongly the imbecility and lack of purpose that then presided over our military councils.2

IV The Rebels were kept thoroughly acquainted by their confederates, left by Davis, Floyd, etc., in our service, with everything that took place or was meditated3 on our side; and so were able to anticipate and baffle every movement of our armies.4 Thus, a military map or plan of the region directly west of Washington had been completed for use at the War Department barely two days before our advance reached Centerville; but, the movement being rapid, the Rebels left here many articles in their hasty flight, and, among then, a copy of this map, which was supposed to be unknown to all but a few of our highest officers. It was so throughout. Washington swarmed

1 Patterson was a Breckinridge Democrat of the extreme pro-Slavery type — of that type whose views were expressed by The Pennsylvanian--(see page 428). When, on the reception of the tidings of Fort Sumter's surrender, a great popular uprising took place in Philadelphia, as in other cities, and immense crowds paraded the streets, demanding that the flag of the Union should be everywhere displayed, Gen. Patterson's was one of the mansions at which this public exaction of an avowal of sympathy with the outraged symbol of our Union was longest and most sturdily resisted.

2 W. H. Russell, writing from Washington to The London Times on the 19th, two days before the battle — doubtless obtaining his information from authentic sources — thus states the disposition of our forces at that moment:

Under McDowell, at Fairfax and Centerville30,000
Under Patterson, on the Shenandoah22,000
Under Mansfield, in and about Washington16,000
Under Butler, at and near Fortress Monroe11,000
Under Banks, in and near Baltimore7,400
Total86,400

Thus, while the Rebels concentrated, from Richmond on the south to Winchester on the north, all their available strength upon Manassas, and had it in hand before the close of the battle, McDowell had but little more than a third of our corresponding forces wherewith to oppose it — he acting on the offensive. In other words. we fought with 35,000 men, a battle in which we might and should have had 75,000.

3 Mr. Julius Bing, a German by birth but British by naturalization, who was on the battlefield as a spectator, and was there taken prisoner, and conducted next morning to Beauregard's Headquarters, whence he was sent to Richmond, and who seems to have had the faculty of making himself agreeable to either side, stated, after his return, that among the men he met at Beauregard's Headquarters, at the Junction, was Col. Jordan, formerly of our War Department, who boasted that he had received,

Before the attack at Bull Run, a cipher dispatch from some well-informed person within our lines, giving full details of our movements, including the particulars of the plan of battle, the time at which operations would commence, and the number of our troops.

4 A correspondent of The New York Tribune, in his account of the battle, says:

A remarkable fact to be considered is, that the enemy seemed perfectly acquainted with our plans. The feint of Col. Richardson availed nothing, since the Rebel force had nearly all been withdrawn from that position. Our combined attack was thoroughly met, and at the very points where partial surprises had been anticipated.

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