and ultimately suppressing, the Slave-Trade, through a systematic colonization of the western coast of Africa
with emancipated blacks from America
, was matured and suggested by him to others, even before the outbreak of the Revolutionary war; and its realization, interrupted by that struggle, was resumed by him directly after it had been closed.
This was anterior to the British
settlement of Sierra Leone
, and preceded the appearance of Clarkson
's prize essay, commanding public attention to the horrors of the Slave-Trade.
Among Dr. Hopkins
's European correspondents were Granville Sharp and Zachary Macaulay
, who were among the earliest and least compromising of British abolitionists.
Through his influence and efforts, three colored youth were educated in New England
, toward the close of the last century, with express reference to missionary labor in Africa
in connection with the Colonization movement.
Two of these ultimately, though at a mature age, migrated to Liberia
, where they died soon after.
Thirty-eight American blacks emigrated to Sierra Leone
in 1815, under the auspices and in the vessel of one of their own number.
The initial organization of the American Colonization Society took place at Princeton, N. J.
, in the autumn of 1816; and that Society was formally organized at Washington
, by the choice of officers, on the 1st of January, 1817.
Its first attempt at practical colonization was made in 1820 on Sherbro Island
, which proved an unfortunate location; its present position on the main land, at Cape Mesurado, was purchased December 15, 1821, and some colonists landed on it early in the following year.
About one thousand emigrants were dispatched thither in the course of the following seven years, including a small church of colored persons which migrated from Boston
The additional number dispatched during the succeeding thirty years was not far from eight thousand.
The city founded by the original emigrants received the name of Monrovia
, and in 1847 the colony declared itself an independent republic under the name of Liberia
That republic still exists, enjoying a moderate and equable prosperity, in spite of its unhealthiness for whites, and for all but duly acclimated blacks, on account of its tropical and humid location.
But the Colonization movement, though bountifully lauded and glorified by the eminent in Church and State, and though the Society numbered among its Presidents Bushrod Washington
, Charles Carroll
, James Madison
, and Henry Clay
, has not achieved a decided success, and for the last twenty years has steadily and stubbornly declined in importance and consideration.
It has ceased to command or deserve the sympathy of abolitionists, without achieving the hearty confidence, though it has been blessed or cursed with the abundant verbal commendations, of their antagonists.
It was soon discovered that, while it was presented to the former class as a safe and unobjectionable device for mitigating the evils, while gradually undermining the existence, of human bondage in our country, it was, at the same time, commended to the favor and patronage of slaveholders as a means of relieving the South
of its dangerous free-negro element, and