, to be held good against him not only, but all future “ Yankee” and “ Puritan
” aspirants to the Presidency.
was chosen President
in 1828, receiving more than two-thirds of the Electoral votes, including those of all the Slave States
and a part of Maryland
, there were two Jackson Electoral tickets run, but none for Adams
And the first Annual Message of the new President
gave the Indians due notice that Georgia
had not so voted from blind impulse — that their dearest rights, their most cherished possessions, were among her “spoils of victory.”
In this Message, the solemn obligations which our Government had volunteered to assume, in treaty after treaty with the Creeks
and Cherokees, were utterly ignored, and the rights and possessions of the Indians dealt with precisely as if no such treaties had ever existed!
had herself, through her citizens, participated in negotiating, and, through her Senators
, united in ratifying those treaties; yet not only was she held at liberty to disobey and trample on them, but the United States
was regarded as equally absolved, by the convenient fiction of State Sovereignty, from all liability to maintain and enforce them!
No one could deny that we had solemnly engaged, by repeated treaties, to protect the Indians in the undisturbed use and enjoyment forever of the lands which we had admitted to be, and marked out as, theirs.
No one could deny that we had obtained large cessions of valuable lands by these treaties.
No one doubted that Georgia
had urged us to make these treaties, and had eagerly appropriated the lands thus obtained by the Union
, and passed directly over to her: but then, Georgia
was a sovereign State, and entitled to do as she liked with all the lands within her borders, and all the people living thereon, no matter if in flagrant violation of the laws and treaties of the United States
And the new President
did not scruple to assert and reiterate the untruth that the Creeks
and Cherokees respectively were attempting to “erect
an independent government within the limits of Georgia
,” ringing all possible changes on the falsehood, and gravely quoting from the Constitution
that “No new State shall be formed or erected
within the limits of any other State,” as precluding the maintenance by the Creeks
and Cherokees of their governments in territories which they had possessed and governed long before Georgia
had been colonized, or the name Alabama
This deliberate and flagrant perversion of the question to be decided was persisted in through several pages of the Message.
Says the President
Actuated by this view of the subject, I informed the Indians inhabiting parts of Georgia and Alabama that their attempt to establish an independent government would not be countenanced by the Executive of the United States, and advised them to emigrate beyond the Mississippi, or submit to the laws of those States.
What the Indians demanded was simply that the portion of their immemorial possessions which they had reserved for their own use and enjoyment in making liberal cessions to our Government, should still be left to them — that they should be protected